Trang Thuy Thi Nguyen


This paper reports a study that examines the effects of text-based incidental vocabulary learning on EFL high school students’ reading comprehension and explores their attitudes toward text-based incidental vocabulary learning. It was a quasi-experimental study with 70 students from a high school in Kien Giang province. These students were divided into two groups: the control group and the experimental group. The quantitative data from reading tests (for pre-test and post-test) were used to examine students’ reading comprehension over eight weeks. Questionnaires and the qualitative analysis from semi-structured interviews focus on their attitudes towards text-based vocabulary learning in reading comprehension. The findings indicate that text-based incidental vocabulary learning influenced positively students’ reading comprehension after the treatment and that students yielded positive attitudes towards text-based incidental vocabulary learning in their reading lessons.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


text-based incidental vocabulary learning, attitudes, reading comprehension

Full Text:



Baumann, J. F. (2009). Intensity in vocabulary instruction and effects on reading comprehension. Topics in Language Disorders, 29(4), 312-328.

Chikalanga, I. (1992). A suggested taxonomy of inferences for the reading teacher.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed

methods approach. Sage Publications.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). A concise introduction to mixed methods research. SAGE publications.

Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education (Vol. 7, p. 429). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Glende, L. (2013). Vocabulary and word study to increase comprehension in content areas for struggling readers. MA Thesis, School of Arts and Sciences, St. John Fisher College.

Grabe, W. (2004) Research on teaching reading. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24(3), 44-69.

Gu, P. Y. (2003). Vocabulary learning in a second language: Person, task, context, and strategies. TESL-EJ, 7(2), 1-25.

Hidayati, K. H. (2021). The incidental vocabulary learning opportunities in the reading comprehension passages. International Journal of Transdisciplinary Knowledge, 31-45.

Hasbún Hasbún, L. (2005). The effects of explicit vocabulary teaching on vocabulary acquisition and attitude towards reading. Research News in Education 5(2), 1-21

Hiebert, E. H., & Kamil, M. L. (2005). Teaching and learning vocabulary: Bringing research to practice. Routledge.

Huckin, T., & Coady, J. (1999). Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language: A review. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21(4), 181–193.

Hulstijn J. H. & Laufer, B. (2001). Some empirical evidence for the involvement load hypothesis in vocabulary acquisition. Language Learning, 51(3), 539-558.

Nguyen, H. T. T., & Khuat, N. T. T. (2003). Learning vocabulary through games. Asian EFL Journal, 5(4), 90-105.

Joe, A. (1995). Text-based tasks and incidental vocabulary learning Second Language Research, 11(2), 149-158.

Lapan, S. D., & Quartaroli, M. T. (Eds.). (2009). Research essentials: An introduction to designs and practices. John Wiley & Sons.

Bensoussan, M., & Laufer, B. (1984). Lexical guessing in context in EFL reading comprehension. Journal of Research in Reading, 7(1), 15-32.

Lehr, et al. (2004). Research–based practices in early reading series: A focus on vocabulary. Pacific Resources for Education and Learning. Retrieved March 20, 2009 from

Le, K. T., & Nguyen, H. B. (2017). Teacher beliefs about critical reading strategies in English as a foreign language classes in Mekong delta institutions, Vietnam. European Journal of English Language Teaching, 2(4), 39-57.

Manzo, A. V., Manzo, U. C., & Thomas, M. M. (2006). Rationale for systematic vocabulary development: Antidote for state mandates. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 49(7), 610-619.

Mothe, P. S. (2000). Innovative techniques of teaching vocabulary at the intermediate level in the second language classroom. India: Adarsh Senior College.

Nagy, W. E. (1988). Vocabulary instruction and reading comprehension (No. 431). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Center for the Study of Reading.

Nagy, W., Herman, P., & Anderson, R. (1985). Learning words from context. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 233–253.

Nation, I. S., & Webb, S. A. (2011). Researching and analyzing vocabulary. Boston, MA: Heinle, Cengage Learning.

Nation, P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Nation, P., & Coady, J. (1988). Vocabulary and reading. Vocabulary and Language Teaching, 97, 110.

Pham, N. H. T., & Nguyen, H. B. (2017). Text-based vocabulary instruction as a learning tool for EFL freshmen. European Journal of English Language Teaching, 3(1), 39-48

Nguyen, H. B., Haworth, P., & Hansen, S. (2019). Challenging ESP teacher beliefs about active learning in a Vietnamese university. Teacher Development, 23(3), 345-365.

Nuttall, C. (2005). Teaching reading skills in a foreign language. Heinemann.

Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies. Cambridge University Press.

Pham, N. H. T., & Nguyen, H. B. (2017). Text-based vocabulary instruction as a learning tool for EFL freshmen’s reading comprehension. European Journal of English Language Teaching 3(1), 39-59.

Qian, D. (2002). Investigating the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and academic reading performance: An assessment perspective. Language Learning, 52, 513-536.

Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. W. (2002). Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics (3rd ed.). London, UK: Longman.

Schmitt, N. (2008) Review article: Instructed second language vocabulary learning. Language Teaching Research, 12(3), 329-363.

Seifert, S., Kulmhofer, A., Paleczek, L., Schwab, S., & Gasteiger Klicpera B. (2017). Suggestions for vocabulary-focused reading lessons for mainstream classrooms addressing both L1 and L2 learners. Early Childhood Education Journal, 45(3), 333-345.

Thornbury, S. (2002). How to teach vocabulary. Essex: Longman

Tomlinson, B. (2015). TBLT materials and curricula: From theory to practice. In M. Thomas & H. Reinders (Eds.), Contemporary task–based language teaching in Asia (pp. 328-340). London: Bloomsbury.

Wang, Y. (2013). Incidental vocabulary learning through extensive reading: A case of lower-level EFL Taiwanese learners. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 10(3), 59-80.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2015 - 2023. European Journal of English Language Teaching (ISSN 2501-7136) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).