Minh Chau Bui, Tan Minh Khoi Vuong


Teaching EFL writing has been one of the most trending research fields recently. Among the techniques being tested, using instructional rubrics has drawn much attention from researchers and teachers. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of using rubrics in enhancing students’ writing skill and the students’ attitudes towards this technique. The study used the experimental research design. The participants were thirty English-majored eleventh-grade students (N=30) in a high school in Can Tho City, Viet Nam. The main research tools included two guiding rubrics, one writing pre-test, two writing post-tests, and a questionnaire. Holistic and analytic rubrics were used in the teaching of writing skill to the participants to help them understand the targets for learning and the standards of quality for their writing work.  Data from the pre- and post- writing tests indicated significant changes in students’ writing performance after using both holistic and analytic rubrics. Besides, the results of the questionnaire revealed learners’ positive perceptions of this technique. It could be suggested that high school teachers should take into account the use of rubrics in teaching writing for EFL students.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


instructional rubrics, writing skill, Vietnamese high school

Full Text:



Airasian, P. W. (2000). Assessment in the Classroom: A Concise Approach (2nd ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Airasian, P. W. (2001). Classroom Assessment: Concepts and Applications (4th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Allen, M. J. (2014). Using rubrics to grade, assess, and improve student learning. Strengthening Our Roots: Quality, Opportunity & Success Professional Development Day Miami-Dade College, 1–82. Retrieved from Rubric Workshop Handout-Mary Allen.pdf

Andrade, H. (2000). What do we mean by results? Using rubrics to promote thinking and learning. Educational Leadership, 57(5), 13-18.

Andrade, H. & Saddler, B. (2004). The writing rubric. Educational Leadership, 62 (2), 48-52.

Arter, J. (2000). Rubrics, scoring guides and performance criteria: Classroom tools for assessing and improving student learning. Retrieved from

Bachman, L. & Palmer, A. (1996). Language Testing in Practice: Designing and Developing Useful Language Tests. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Becker, A. (2016). Student-generated scoring rubrics: Examining their formative value for improving ESL students’ writing performance. Assessing Writing, 29, 15–24.

Blankenship, J. M. & Wilson, E. K. (2009). Teaching writing and research skills in an undergraduate public administration class. Proceedings of the Southern Political Science Association Annual Meeting, 7–10. New Orleans, LA, USA.

Brookhart, S. M. (2013). How to Create and Use Rubrics for Formative Assessment and Grading. Alexandria, Virginia, USA.

Brown, G. T. L., Irving, S. E. & Keegan, P. J. (2014). An Introduction to Educational Assessment, Measurement, and Evaluation: Improving the Quality of Teacher-based Assessment (3rd ed.). Auckland, NZ: Dunmore Publishing. ISBN 9781927212097

Dawson, P. (2015). Assessment rubrics: towards clearer and more replicable design, research and practice. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 42(3), 347–360.

Goodrich, H. (1997). Understanding Rubrics. Educational Leadership, 54(4), 14-17.

Hamp-Lyons, L. (1991). Scoring procedures for ESL context. In L. Hamp-Lyons (Ed.), Assessing Second Language Writing, 241-277. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Jacobs, H. L., Zingraf, S. A., Wormuth, D. R., Hartfiel, V. F. & Hughey, J. B. (1981). Testing ESL composition: A Practical Approach. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Johnson, K. & Johnson, H. (Eds.). (1999). Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Linguistics. Oxford, UK; Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers.

Jonsson, A. & Svingby, G. (2007). The use of scoring rubrics: Reliability, validity, and educational consequences. Educational Research Review, 2, 130-144.

Lovorn, M. G. & Rezaei, A. R. (2011). Assessing the assignment: Rubrics training for pre-service and new in-service teachers. Practical Assessment Research & Evaluation, 16(16), 1-18.

Maghsoudi, M. & Haririan, J. (2013). The impact of brainstorming strategies Iranian EFL learners’ writing skill regarding their social class status. International Journal of Language and Linguistics, 1(4-1), 60-67.

Mahmoudi, F. & Buğra, C. (2020). The effects of using rubrics and face to face feedback in teaching writing skill in higher education. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching (IOJET), 7(1), 150-158.

Mansilla, V. B., Duraisingh, E. D., Wolfe, C. R. & Haynes, C. (2009). Targeted assessment rubric: An empirically grounded rubric for interdisciplinary writing. The Journal of Higher Education, 80, 334- 353. doi:10.1353/jhe.0.0044

Mertler, C. A. (2001). Designing scoring rubrics for your classroom. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 7(25).

Moskal, B. M. (2000). Scoring rubrics: What, when and how? Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 7(3).

Nunan, D. (1989). Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Peterson, M. H. & Gustafson, A. (2013). Using curriculum-embedded assessments of student learning: Establishing a model for internal benchmarking. Assessment Update, 25(2), 9–11.

Popham, J. (1997). What’s wrong – and what’s right – with rubrics. Educational Leadership, 55(2), 72-75.

Reddy, M. & Andrade, H. (2010). A review of rubric use in higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35(4), 435-448.

Silva, R. D. (2014). Rubrics for assessment: Their effects on ESL students’ authentic task performance. 4th CELC Symposium Proceedings, National University of Singapore.

Stiggins, R. J. (2001). Student-involved Classroom Assessment. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Soles, D. (2001). Sharing Scoring Guides. Retrieved from

Steven, D. D. & Levi, A. J. (2013). Introduction to Rubrics: An Assessment Tool to Save Grading Time, Convey Effective Feedback, and Promote Student Learning. Virginia: Stylus Publishing.

Teater, B. A. (2011). Maximizing student learning: A case example of applying teaching and learning theory in social work education. Social Work Education, 30, 571–585.

Trinh, H. L. (2020). The effectiveness of using scoring rubrics in academic writing to English-majored students. Vietnam Journal of Education, 4(4), 76-82.

Turgut, F. & Kayaoğlu, M. N. (2015). Using rubrics as an instructional tool in EFL writing courses. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 11(1), 47-58

Turley, E., & Gallagher, C. (2008). On the uses of rubrics: Reframing the great rubric debate. English Journal, 97(4), 87-92.

Wang, W. (2016): Using rubrics in student self-assessment: Student perceptions in the English as a foreign language writing context. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, DOI: 10.1080/02602938.2016.1261993

Weir, C. J. (1990). Communicative Language Testing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.

Wolf, K. & Stevens, E. (2007). The role of rubrics in advancing and assessing student learning. The Journal of Effective Teaching, 7(1): 3-14.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2015 - 2022. European Journal of English Language Teaching (ISSN 2501-7136) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).