Victorini Salema


Assessment as a process of determining the extent to which teaching and learning objectives have been achieved, is popular and used by teachers at different levels. However, the adoption of new approaches in teaching and learning such as learner centered approach based on social constructivism, possess a big challenge to teachers to align assessment practices with the theory. Many teachers belief that assessment is solely dictated by the teacher and the learner has nothing contribute in the process of setting and the administration of assessments. The theory of constructivism emphasizes on the role of learner in both learning and assessment procedures and the need for authentic assessment which incorporates diversity of objectives from both cognitive psychomotor and affective domains. This study focused on the assessment practices in secondary schools in Kilimanjaro and to determine how they align with the learner centered approaches. This study also assessed the attitudes of teachers and students and challenges encountered in assessment practices. The researcher adopted mixed research methods for data collection and analysis. This study sampled 580 students, 115 teachers, 6 heads of secondary schools, one education inspectors and one National Examination Council of Tanzania (NECTA) official. Data collection instruments were questionnaires, in-depth interview guides and document analysis guide. The findings indicated that there was a gap between theory and practice in assessment. A good number of teachers use teacher centered approach in both teaching and assessment procedures. It was also found that teachers and students had negative attitude towards the assessment procedures of learner centered approach, with several challenges. The researcher recommends the need for in- service training to empower teachers on how to set authentic assessment tests and exams which are more realistic in assessing students in secondary schools in Tanzania. 


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



assessment, learner centeredness, theory, tests, exams


Ajzen I (1991). The Theory of Planned Behaviour. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process.

: 179-211.

Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) (2012, February). Triennale on Education and Training in Africa –A Case Study of Learning Materials Used to Deliver Knowledge and Skills– or Competency–Based Curricula in Tanzania: Triennale on Education and Training in Africa (paper presented at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso).

Creswell, J. W. & Clark, V. P. (2007).Designing and Doing Mixed Method Research. London: Sage Publications.

Drew, C. (2009). Insights into Social Constructivist Theory. Retrieved on 20/3/2012

form: constructivist-theory.html.

García, G. E.; Pearson, P. D. Assessment and Diversity. In Darlinghammond, L. (Ed.). Review of research in Education (pp. 25-49). Washington, D.C.: American.

HakiElimu (2010). 'Who Decides What Our Children Learn? A research report on the relationship between curriculum quality and education quality. Dar es Salaam: Hakelimu.

Hakielimu (2012). School Children and National Examinations. Who Fails Who? A research report on the relationship between Practice and curriculum objectives in Tanzania. Info. Dar es Salaam: Hakielimu.

Heywood, J. (2000). Assessment in Higher Education, London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Kerlinger, N. & Lee, H. (2000). Foundations of Behavioural Research. South

Melbourne: Thomson Learning.

Krathwohl, D. R., Bloom, B. S., & Masia, B. B. (1973). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, the Classification of Educational Goals. Handbook II: Affective Domain. New York: David McKay Co., retrieved from

Montgomery, K. (2001). Authentic assessment: A guide for elementary teachers. New York: Longman. ISBN: 0321037820.

Orego, E. (2007). The Teaching Effectiveness Program Academic Learning Services, 65 PLC, University of Oregon, retrieved on 2/2/2013 from Eugene

Tanzania Institute of education TIE (2014). Revised Curriculum of Secondary Education. Dar es Salaam.

Tillya, F & Mafumiko, F. (2010). “The Compatibility between Teaching Methods and

Competence-Based Curriculum in Tanzania”, Papers in Education and Development, University of Dar es Salaam.

Salema, V. (2009). An evaluation of the implementation of Secondary education Plan (SEDP) in Rombo District, Tanzania. Published thesis submitted in partial requirement for the degree of M.Ed., Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi.

Van Den Berg, I., Admiraal, W. & Pilot, A. (2006). Peer assessment in university teaching: Evaluating seven course designs. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 31(1), 19-36.

World Bank. (2008). “Curricula, Examinations, and Assessment in Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa.” World Bank Working Paper no. 128, World Bank, Washington, DC.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Victorini Salema

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).