S. Okafor, G. O. Akpochafo


This study investigated the moderating impact of age and gender on the relationship between self-esteem and career decision-making difficulties among secondary school students. Three research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted a correlational research design. The population included 16,473 Senior Secondary two (SS 2) students from public secondary schools in Delta North Senatorial District. The sample size comprised 378 senior secondary school students. The students were sampled using a multistage sampling procedure. A questionnaire was used to gather data in this study. Expert judgment was used to determine the instrument's face validity, while factor analysis using the Principal Component Analysis method was used to determine the content and construct validity. Cronbach’s alpha reliability index was used to determine the internal consistency of the items in the instrument. Self-Esteem Rating Scale = 0.71, and Career Decision-Making Difficulties Rating Scale = 0.82 are the reliability coefficients found. The hypotheses were tested and answered using regression statistics of F-ratio at 0.05 level of significance, while the research questions were answered using Pearson’s coefficient of determination. The findings of the study revealed that there is no significant relationship between self-esteem and career decision-making difficulties among secondary school students; that there is no significant moderating impact of age and gender in the relationship between self-esteem and career decision-making difficulties among secondary school students. The study recommended that more studies should be carried out to explore the reason why no significant relationship was found between self-esteem and career decision-making difficulties among secondary school students in Delta North Senatorial District.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


self-esteem; career choice; career decision-making difficulties; secondary school students

Full Text:



Akpochafo, G. O. (2021). The Impact of Age and Type of School in Career Decision-Making Difficulties. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 11(1), 1-8.

Akpochafo, G. O. (2020). Career decision-making difficulties among secondary schools in Nigeria. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(11B), 5918-5925, 2020.

Anghel, E., & Gati, I. (2019). The Associations Between Career Decision-Making Difficulties and Negative Emotional States. Journal of Career Development 1-15, DOI: 10.1177/0894845319884119

Bacanli, F. (2012). Relationship between career decision-making difficulties and irrational beliefs about career choice. Turkish Psychological Counselling and Guidance Journal, 4(37), 86-95.

Fouad, N. A., Guillen, A., Harris-Hodge, E., Henry, C., Novakovic, A., Terry, S., & Kantamneni, N. (2006). Need, awareness, and use of career services for college students. Journal of Career Assessment, 14, 407-420. doi:10.1177/1069072706288928

Gati, I. & Saka, N. (2001). High school students’ career-related decision-making difficulties. Journal of Counselling and Development, 79, 331-340. Doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.2001tb01978.x.

Gati, I., Gadassi, R., Saka, N., Hadadi, Y., Ansenberg, N., Friedmann, R., & Asulin-Peretz, L. (2010). Emotional and personality-related aspects of career decision-making difficulties: Facets of career indecisiveness. Journal of Career Assessment, 19, 3-20. doi: 10.1177/1069072710382525

Gati, I., Krausz, M. & Osipow, S.H. (1996). A taxonomy of difficulties in career decision making. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 43(3), 510-526.

Guan, Y., Chen, S.X., Levin, N., Bond, M.H., Luo, N., Xu, J. and Itan, X. (2015). Differences in career decision-making profiles between American and Chinese university students. The relative strength of mediating mechanism across cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology,

Kelly, K. R., & Lee, W. C. (2002). Mapping the domain of career decision problems. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 302-326. doi: 10.1006/jvbe.2001.1858

King, D. K., Glasgow, R. E., Toobert, D. J., Strycker, L. A., Estabrooks, P.A., Osuna, D., & Faber, A.J. (2010). Self-efficacy, problem-solving, and social-environmental support are associated with diabetes self-management behaviors. Diabetes Care, 33(4), 751-753. doi: 10.2337/dc09-1746.

Kırdök, O., & Harman, E. (2018). High School Students' Career Decision-making Difficulties According to Locus of Control. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 6(2), 242-248

Kleiman, T., Gati, I., Peterson, G., Sampson, J., Reardon, R., & Lenz, J. (2004). Dysfunctional thinking and difficulties in career decision making. Journal of Career Assessment, 12, 312-331. doi:10.1177/1069072704266673

Lin, S.-H, Wu, C.-H., & Chen, L. H. (2015). Unpacking the role of self-esteem in career uncertainty: A self-determination perspective. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10, 231–239.

Mahadi, H., Abdullah, N., Ph’ng, L. M., Hasan, H., & Ariffin, H. (2015). Self-Esteem, Social Support, And Career Decision-Making Among Technical Engineering Students. 4th International Conference on Technology Management, Business and Entrepreneurship Kings Green Hotel Melaka, Malaysia 24th-25th November 2015

Migunde, Q., Agak, J. & Odiwuor, W. (2012). Gender differences, career aspirations and career development barriers of secondary school students in Kasimu Municipality. Gender and Behaviour, 10(2), 4987–4997.

Murniarti, E., & Siahaan, L. I. (2019). Millennials’ career decision-making difficulties (CDMQ) in Indonesian university students. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 6(9), 268-276. Doi:1014738/assrj.69.7079.

Osipow, S. H., Carney, C. G., & Barak, A. (1976). A scale of educational-vocational undecidedness: A typological approach. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 9(2), 233–243.

Öztemel, K. (2013). Lise öğrencilerinin kariyer karar verme güçlüklerinin yordayıcıları olarak algılanan sosyal destek ve cinsiyet. Journal of Turkish Educational Sciences, 11(3).

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSE). Accept. Commit. Ther. Meas. Package 61:52. doi: 10.1037/t01038-000

Saka, N., Gati, I., & Kelly, K. R. (2008). Emotional and personality-related aspects of career decision-making difficulties. Journal of Career Assessment, 1-22. doi: 10.1177/1069072708318900

Sovet, L., Tak, J., & Jung, S. (2015). Validation of the career decision-making difficulties questionnaire among Korean college students. Journal of Career Assessment, 23, 661- 676. doi:10.1177/1069072714553556

Tagay, O. (2015). Career decision-making difficulties in Turkey and the USA. International Journal of Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Research, 02, 02, 0232-0239.

Tien, H. L. S. (2001). Career decision-making difficulties perceived by college students in Taiwan. 教育心理學報, 33, 87-98. doi:10.6251/BEP.20010612

Vaiopoulou, J., Alexiou, I. & Stamoviasis, D. (2019). Career decision-making difficulties and decision statuses among Greek student teachers. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 16, 74-94.

Vertsberger, D., & Gati, I. (2016). Career decision-making difficulties and help-seeking among Israeli young adults. Journal of Career Development, 43, 145-159. doi: 10.1177/0894845315584162

Willner, T., Gati, I., & Guan, Y. (2015). Career decision-making profiles and career decision making difficulties: A cross-cultural comparison among US, Israeli, and Chinese samples. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 88, 143-153. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2015.03.007

Xu, H. & Bhang, C. H. (2019). The structure and measurement of career indecision: a critical review. The Career Development Quarterly. In press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 S. Okafor, G. O. Akpochafo

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).