Mohammadi Hedieh, Akbari Omid


This study particularly aimed at investigating the relationships of ego identity, goal orientation and age of the students among EFL university students. Ego identity is the core element through psychological issues and it sets social and cognitive structure of individuality. Goal orientation is a sign of personal issue and considered as a kind of motivation that guides the learners to their future actions. Four universities were randomly sampled. Participants were 217 students of whom 158 were females and 59 were males. The students responded to scale of the EOM-EIS and AGQ. SPSS was run, using Cronbach's alpha and Pearson correlation coefficient were applied. The results revealed all four subscales of ego identity except for identity-foreclosure, had a significant relationship with total goal orientation and age of the students. The results also demonstrated that total goal orientation had a significant relationship with age of the learners. Consequently, ego identity, and goal orientation are influential in academic achievement of the students. The current study revealed that identity achievement plays an important role in the locus of identity formation and it could be more crucial in their academic courses than the other learners who were more concerned with the other subscales of ego identity. Students who were more inclined to mastery goals were more oriented to progress


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



ego identity; goal orientation; age


Adams, G. R. (1996). A developmental social psychology of identity: Understanding the person-in-context. Journal of Adolescence, 19(1), 429-442.

Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structure, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(1), 261-271.

Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(1), 117-148.

Bennion, L. D., & Adams, G. R. (1986). A revision of the extended version of the Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status: An identity instrument for use with late adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 1(2), 183-198.

Berzonsky, M. D. (1989). Identity style. Conceptualization and Measurement Journal of Adolescent Research, 14(3), 268-282.

Bowman, B. T. (2003). Cultural diversity and academic achievement, learning point. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, 42(1), 12-20.

Church, M. A. (2001). Perception of classroom environment, achievement goals, and achievement psychology. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(1), 43-54.

Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256-273.

Elliot, A. J., & Church, M. A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(1), 218-232.

Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis, 30(1), 92-100. New York: Bortin.

Grotevant, H. D. (1987). Toward a process model of identity formation. Journal of Adolescence Research, 2(3), 203-222.

Kaplan, A. (1997). Goal orientation, coping strategies, and well-being: A LISREL model. Manuscript in preparation.

Kaplan, A. (1999). Achievement goals and student well-being. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 92(2), 316-330.

Kaplan, A. & Flum, H. (2010). Achievement goal orientations and identity status. Educational Research Review, 5(1), 50-67.

Locke, E., & Latham, G. (1994). Goal setting theory. In H. O’Neil, & M. Drillings (Eds.), Motivation: Theory and research. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Maehr, M. L. (1989). Thoughts about motivation. In C. Ames & R. Ames (Eds.), Research on Motivation in Education. New York: Academic Press.

Marcia, J. E. (1980). Identity in adolescence In J. Andelson (Eds.), Handbook of Adolescent Psychology, 21(1), 149-160. New York: Wiley.

Marcia, J. E. (1993). Adolescence, identity, and the Bernadone family. International Journal of Theory and Research, 2(3), 19-27.

Meece, J. L. (1990). The classroom context and student's motivational goals in science. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston.

Meece, J. L., Glienke, B. B. (2006). Age, Gender, and Goal orientation. Journal of School Psychology, 44(1), 351-373.

Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. (2002). Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). England: Pearson Education Company.

Streitmatter, J. L. (1993). Identity status and identity style: A replication study. Journal of Adolescence, 16(4), 211-215.

VandeWalle, D. (1997). Development and validation of a work domain goal-orientation instrument. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 57(1), 995-1015.

Wright, B. L. (2011). I know who I am, do you? Identity and academic achievement of successful African American male adolescents in an urban pilot high school in the United States. Urban Education, 46(4), 611-638.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2015. European Journal of English Language Teaching (ISSN 2501-7136) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).