Ümit Levent Değirmencioğlu


There are countless factors that impact the process of second language learning and teaching in both positive and negative ways. These factors are not limited to only student-oriented factors since some of them might stem from teachers themselves as well. One of the teacher-oriented factors that shape the learning/ teaching process is teacher’s levels of self-efficacy. For decades, teacher self-efficacy has been holding its position as being one of the most popular topics of investigation. Many studies have been conducted to further understand its effect on classroom environment. These studies have put forward a great deal of invaluable findings. However, only a few examined its effects on teaching methods and techniques used in the classroom. The present study set out to investigate this issue by collecting data from 64 EFL teachers, using both quantitative and qualitative methods with a three-staged survey. The findings showed: 1) Turkish EFL teachers have moderately high teacher self-efficacy, 2) age and gender are not factors affecting teacher self-efficacy while teaching experience is, 3) teachers with high self-efficacy use more modern techniques in their lessons and 4) high self-efficacy leads teachers to more implementations of communicative and collaborative tasks. The findings have numerous implications for further research that will be conducted in Turkey as they shed light on the relationship between teacher self-efficacy and teaching methods. Teachers of foreign languages should also be aware of the teaching implications that have been suggested throughout the study and criticize their teaching techniques in terms of traditional or contemporary, by bearing in mind their levels of self-efficacy.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


teacher self-efficacy, teaching methods, EFL teachers, Turkish EFL context

Full Text:



Allwright, R. L. (1984). The importance of interaction in classroom language learning. Applied linguistics, 5(2), 156-171.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral

change. Psychological review, 84(2), 191.

Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human

behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press.

Bell, D. M. (2003). Method and postmethod: Are they really so incompatible?. TESOL

quarterly, 37(2), 325-336.

Bradley, L., Lindström, B., & Rystedt, H. (2010). Rationalities of collaboration for language learning in a wiki. ReCALL, 22(2), 247-265.

Brouwers, A., & Tomic, W. (2003). A test of the factorial validity of the teacher efficacy

scale. Research in Education, 69(1), 67-79.

Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching (5th ed.). Pearson Education.

Cheung, C. K. (2001). The use of popular culture as a stimulus to motivate secondary students' English learning in Hong Kong. ELT journal, 55(1), 55-61.

Dembo, M. H., & Gibson, S. (1985). Teachers' sense of efficacy: An important factor in

school improvement. The elementary school journal, 86(2), 173-184.

Evers, W. J., Brouwers, A., & Tomic, W. (2002). Burnout and self‐efficacy: A study on

teachers' beliefs when implementing an innovative educational system in the

Netherlands. British Journal of educational psychology, 72(2), 227-243.

Ellis, R., Basturkmen, H., & Loewen, S. (2002). Doing focus-on-form. System, 30(4), 419-

Ellis, R. (2012). Language teaching research and language pedagogy. John Wiley & Sons.

Eslami, Z. R., & Fatahi, A. (2008). Teachers' Sense of Self-Efficacy, English Proficiency, and Instructional Strategies: A Study of Nonnative EFL Teachers in Iran. Tesl-Ej, 11(4), n4.

Friedman, I. A., & Farber, B. A. (1992). Professional self-concept as a predictor of teacher

burnout. The Journal of Educational Research, 86(1), 28-35.

Halliday, M. A. K. (1973). Explorations in the functions of language.

Hansen, J. G., & Liu, J. (2005). Guiding principles for effective peer response. ELT

journal, 59(1), 31-38.

Huba, M. E., & Freed, J. E. (2000). Learner-centered assessment on college campuses:

Shifting the focus from teaching to learning. Allyn & Bacon, 160 Gould St., Needham

Heights, MA 02494.

Kaygisiz, S., Anagun, S. S., & Karahan, E. (2018). The Predictive Relationship between Self-Efficacy Levels of English Teachers and Language Teaching Methods. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 18(78), 183-202.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006). Understanding language teaching: From method to postmethod.


Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and principles in language teaching. Oxford


Long, M. H. (1998). Focus on form Theory, research, and practice Michael H. Long Peter

Robinson. Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition, 15, 15-41.

Moore, W. P., & Esselman, M. E. (1994). Exploring the Context of Teacher Efficacy: The

Role of Achievement and Climate.

Nassaji, H., & Fotos, S. (2004). 6. Current developments in research on the teaching of

grammar. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 126-145.

Nassaji, H., & Fotos, S. S. (2011). Teaching grammar in second language classrooms:

Integrating form-focused instruction in communicative context. Routledge.

Nunan, D. (1999). Second Language Teaching & Learning. Heinle & Heinle Publishers, 7625

Empire Dr., Florence, KY 41042-2978.

Nunan, D. (2010). Teaching English to young learners. Anaheim University.

Penrose, A., Perry, C., & Ball, I. (2007). Emotional intelligence and teacher self-efficacy: The contribution of teacher status and length of experience. Issues in educational

research, 17(1), 107-126.

Ross, J. A. (1992). Teacher efficacy and the effects of coaching on student

achievement. Canadian Journal of Education/Revue Canadienne de l'education, 51-65.

Schwab, R. L., & Iwanicki, E. F. (1982). Perceived role conflict, role ambiguity, and teacher

burnout. Educational Administration Quarterly, 18(1), 60-74.

Sherer, M., Maddux, J. E., Mercandante, B., Prentice-Dunn, S., Jacobs, B., & Rogers, R. W.

(1982). The self-efficacy scale: Construction and validation. Psychological

reports, 51(2), 663-671.

Swain, M. (2000). The output hypothesis and beyond: Mediating acquisition through

collaborative dialogue. Sociocultural theory and second language learning, 97, 114.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2015 - 2023. European Journal of English Language Teaching (ISSN 2501-7136) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).