W. Heather M. Fernando, Siti Khalidah Md Yusoff, Ali Khatibi, S. M. Ferdous Azam


The concept of Human Capital (HC) recently received attention from scholars. They hypothesize that HC represents human factor with combined intelligence, expertise and skills of individuals. Human Capital Management is considered as an integrated approach to manage and develop human capabilities thus achieve high performance. Human Capital Management Practices (HCMP), provide with specific competencies that are important to excel best performance in the business world; the war for excellence escalates as the key factor to accomplish the top position among competitors. HC holds transferable characteristics across the jobs, firms or industry. HC has a broad meaning that includes self-generating, expandable, transportable and shareable characteristics that closely linked with the individual economic performance.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



human capital impact, organizational performance, banks in Sri Lanka

Full Text:



Armstrong, M. (2011). Armstrong’s Handbook of Strategic Human Resource Management, 5th Ed.

Armstrong, M. (2012). Armstrong's Handbook of Performance Management: An Evidence-Based Guide to Delivering High Performance, 4th Ed. Kogan Page Publishers.

Bassi, L. and McMurrer, D. (2007). Maximizing Your Return on People, Harvard Business Review March-2007.

Bhattacharya, A. (2013). Organization Design and Performance: Evidence from India. International Journal of Management and Marketing Research, Vol. 6 (2), 93-107.

Birasnav, M., Rangnekar, S. and Dalpati, A. (2011). Transformational Leadership and Human Capital Benefits: The Role of Knowledge Management, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 32 (2), pp.106-126.

Bontis, N. and Fitz-enz, J. (2002). Intellectual capital ROI: a causal map of human capital antecedents and consequents, Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 3 (3), 223-227.

Boon, C., Eckardt, R., Lepak D. P. and Boselie, P. (2018). Integrating strategic human capital and strategic human resource management, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29 (1), pp. 34-67.

Central Bank of Sri Lanka, Annual Report, Year, 2015.

Central Bank of Sri Lanka, Annual Report, Year, 2016.

Crook, T. R., Todd, S. Y., Combs, J. G., Woehr, D. J. and Ketchen, D. J. (2011). Does Human Capital Matter? A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship Between Human Capital and Firm Performance American Psychological Association, Vol. 96 (3), pp. 443–456.

Deloitte University Press (2016). Global Human Capital Trends 2016, The New Organization, Different by Design. Retrieved from

Deloitte University Press (2017). Deloitte Global Human Capital Trends 2017, Rewriting the Rules for the Digital Age. Retrieved from

Deloitte University Press (2019). Deloitte Global Human Capital Trends 2019. Leading the social enterprise: Reinvent with a human focus.

Dharmaratne, G. D. I. K., (2014). An Empirical Investigation on Internet Banking Service Quality and Its Impact on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty: Special Reference to the Sri Lankan Banking Sector, Management Science University, Malaysia.

Emmanuel, A. O., Oluwayemisi, O. R. A. and Abosede, B. J. (2015). Influence of Human Capital Management on Organizational Performance, Journal of Resources Development and Management, An International Peer-reviewed Journal, 14, 8-14.

Febriansyah, H. (2010). Endorsing Employee Engagement through Human Capital Approach. An Empirical Research . 11th International Conference Ankara, Turkey, Social Responsibility, Professional Ethics, and Management Proceedings. Austria: University of Innsbruck.

Fernando, W. H. M, Md Yusoff, Khatibi, S. K. and Ferdous Azam, S. M. (2019). A Review on Human Capital; Two Principal Ideas Predominantly Generic Human Capital and Specific Human Capital for Organizational Performance, European Journal of Economic and Financial Research, Vol. 3 (5), pp. 35-47

Goleman, D. (2000). Leadership that gets results. Harvard Business Review, March-April, 80-90

Hossain, U. and Roy, I. (2016). Human Capital Management: The New Competitive Approach, International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, Vol. 4 (5) 1020-1034.

Jamal, W. (2008). Impact of Human Capital on Organizational Performance, Doctoral Thesis, Scholar of Foundation University, Institute of Management and Computer Sciences (FUIMCS), Islamabad.

Jamal, W. and Saif, M. I. (2011). Impact of Human Capital Management on Organizational Performance, European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, Issue 34, 55-69.

Jamal, W. and Iqbal, J. (2011). Leadership Practices Maneuvers: Knowledge Accessibility and Learning Capacity of Organization, European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, (37), 7-16.

KPMG (2019). Sri Lanka Banking Report, KPMG a Sri Lankan partnership, pp. 1-30.

Kulvisaechana, S. (2005). The Rhetoric and Reality of Developing Human Capital in the Organization: A Case Study. University of Cambridge, Judge Institute of Management, Cambridge Business School, pp. 1-36.

Mahdi, O. R. and Almsafir, M. K. (2014). The Role of Strategic in Building Sustainable Competitive Advantage in the Academic Environment, International Conference on Innovation, Management and Technology Research, Malaysia. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 129, 289 – 296.

Mohrman, S. A. and Lawler, E. E. (2014). Designing organizations for sustainable effectiveness, Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, Vol. 1(1), pp. 14 – 34.

Nicol-Keita, R. G. (2013). The impact of Human Capital Management on Operational Performance at the Gambia National Water and Electricity Company (NAWEC), Department of Managerial Science, School of Business, KNUST, College of Art and Social Sciences, 1-79.

Nimsith, S. I., Rifas, A. H. and Cader M. J. A. (2016). Impact of Core Competency on Competitive Advantage of Banking Firms in Sri Lanka, International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology, Vol. 3 (7) 64-73.

Nishantha De Silva, D. S. P., Chinna, K. and Ferdous Azam, S. M. (2019). Major Determinants on the Profitability of Sri Lankan Local Commercial Banks, European Journal of Economic and Financial Research, Vol. 3 (5), pp. 92-107.

Odhong, E. A. and Omolo, J. (2015). Effect of Human Capital Investment on Organizational Performance of Pharmaceutical Companies in Kenya, Global Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 3, (6) 1-29.

Odhong, E. A., Were, S. and Omolo, J. (2014). Effect of Human Capital Management Drivers on Organizational Performance in Kenya, a Case of Investment and Mortgages Bank Ltd., European Journal of Business Management, Vol.2 (1), 1-15.

Ogbo, A. I., Chibueze, N. F., Christopher, O. C. and Anthony, I. A. (2015). Impact of Structure on Organizational Performance of selected Technical and Service Firms in Nigeria. Corporate Ownership & Control / Volume 13, Issue 1, 2015, Continued – 10.

Pathmaranjan, R. (2004). Empowerment of Employees as a Strategy for Improving Organizational Performance - A Comparative Study Between State Sector and Private Sector Banking Institutions in Sri Lanka, Journal of Management, Vol. 2 (1), 43-52.

Perera, R. A. A, S. (2015). Human capital in the banking sector: An exploratory study of Sri Lanka and New Zealand, A Thesis for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Accounting at Lincoln University.

Perera, K. A. C. N. and Weerakkody, W. A. S. (2018). The Impact of Human Capital and Social Capital on Employee Performance: A Study of Employees in Small Scale Industry Enterprises in Western Province of Sri Lanka, Kelaniya Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 13 (1), pp. 38-48.

Rasula, J., Vuksic, V. B. and Stemberger, M. I. (2012). The Impact of Knowledge Management on Organizational Performance, Economic and Business Review, Vol. 14 (2), 147-168.

Sekeran, U. and Bougie, R. (2014). Research Methods for Business, A Skill Building Approach, 5th Ed. New Delhi.

Sohel-Uz-Zaman, A. S. M., Anjalin, U. and Khan, R. I. (2019). Human Capital Management: Understanding Its Implications over the Business, International Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences, Vol. 7(5), pp. 170-177. doi: 10.11648/j.ijefm.20190705.13.

Tucker, E. (2018). Secrets to success: human capital management strategy, Strategic HR Review, Vol. 17 (4), pp.170-175.

Ulrich, D. and Lake, D. (1991). Organizational Capability: Creating Competitive Advantage, Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 5 (1) 77-92.


Copyright (c) 2020 W. Heather M. Fernando, Siti Khalidah Md Yusoff, Ali Khatibi, S. M. Ferdous Azam

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2015 - 2018. European Journal Of Social Sciences Studies (ISSN 2501-8590) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.


Hit counter