Joshua Wanjare


This study, carried out in Britain, sought to find out the triple-bottom line performance initiatives adopted by worker co-operatives and to determine the level of satisfaction with their performance as an indicator for effective achievement of objectives. Although survey questionnaires were the main instrument for primary data collection, semi-structured follow-up interviews were also conducted to supplement the method. The study found out that apart from the achievement of the economic and social well-being of members, worker co-operatives have also responded effectively to the social challenges of their communities by trying to solve the problems of unemployment and social exclusion. Some of their objectives include democratization of the work place; integration of the marginalized members of the society; fair trade and environment conservation. The study also found out that worker co-operatives seek to promote the fullest possible participation in the economic and social development of groups of people who have hit her to encountered economic difficulties within the existing economic infrastructure that is not able to provide them with opportunities.


JEL: E24, J24, O15


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



triple-bottom line, sustainability, social economy enterprise, worker co-operatives


Adams, A., S. Fries and R. Simnett. 2011. The journey towards integrative reporting. Accountant’s Digest (May): Issue 558.

Accounting for Sustainability. 2011. The Prince’s Accounting for Sustainability Project: Embedding Sustainability into Decision-making and Reporting Processes. London: The Prince‘s Charities.

Ameer, R. & Othman, R. (2011), Sustainability Practices and Corporate Financial Performance: A Study Based on the Top Global Corporations. Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Berg, N. (2002). Non-response bias. School of Social Sciences. University of Texas, Dallas. Available on line:

Bibby, A. (2004). Financial participation by employees in co-operatives in Britain. Journal of co-operative studies 37 (111), 5-6.

Bradley, K. & Gelb, A. (1983). Worker + capitalism = the new industrial relations. London: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd.

Bryman, A. & Cramer, D. (2005). Quantitative data analysis with SPSS 12 and 13. New York: Routledge.

Cockerton, P., Gilmour-White, T. Pearce, J & Whyatt, A. (1980). Workers co-operatives: A Handbook. Aberdeen: Aberdeen People’s Press Ltd.

Cornforth, C. (1983). Some factors affecting the success or failure of worker co-operatives: A review of empirical research in the United Kingdom. Economic and Industrial Democracy 4: 163 - 190

Co-operative-UK. (2004). Demonstrating co-operative difference: Key social and co-operative performance indicators. Manchester: Co-operative-UK

Davies, P. (1996). Facilitating co-operative management development. Coop dialogue 4 (4).

European Commission. (2005).

Fairbairn, B. (2003). Three strategic concepts for the guidance of co-operatives: Linkage, transparency and cognition. Saskatoon, SK: Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Saskatchewan.

Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS. London: SAGE publications Ltd.

Freeman RE. 1984. Strategic management: a stakeholder approach. Pitman Publishing Inc

Hansen, G. B., Coontz, E. K. & Malan, A. (1997) Steps to Starting a worker co-op. The Center for Co-operatives, University of California, Davis.

Jones, D. & Svejnar, J. (1982). Participatory and Self-managed Firms. Toronto: Lexington Books.

Kinnear, P. R. & Gray, C. D. (2004). SPSS 12 made simple. Hove: Psychology Press.

Lawless, G. & Reynolds, A. (2004). Worker co-operatives: Case studies, key criteria and best practices. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin.

Levin, H. (1984). Employment and productivity of producer co-operatives. In R. Jackall & H. Levin (Eds.), Worker co-operatives in America (pp. 16 – 29). Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Linehan, M. & Tucker, V. (1983). What is a workers’ co-operative? In M. Linehan & V. Tucker (Eds.), Workers’ co-operatives: Potential and problems (p.19). Cork: UCC Bank of Ireland Centre for Co-operative Studies.

Moser, C. A. & Kalton, G. (1989). Survey methods in social investigation. Gower: Aldershort.

Oakeshott, R. (1978). The case for workers’ co-operatives. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.

Pflimlin, E. (1996). Technical / democratic supervision in European co-operative banks. Review of International Co-operation 89, 27 - 33.

Postlethwaite, R., Michie, J., Burns, P., & Nuttall, G. (2005). Shared Company: How employee ownership works. London: Job Ownership Limited

Porter, M., and M. Kramer. 2011. Creating shared value: How to reinvent capitalism—and unleash a wave of innovation and growth. Harvard Business Review (January-February): 62-77

Reinharz, S. (1992). Feminist methods in social research. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sarantakos, S. (2003). Social Research. South Yarra: Macmillan Publishers Australia Pty Ltd.

Shaffer, J. (1999). Historical dictionary of the co-operative movement. London: Scarecrow Press Inc.

Spear, R. (2000) ‘The Co-operative Advantage’, Annals of Public and Co-operative Economics, Oxford: Blackwells.

Stefanson, B. G. (2002). Adult educators in co-operative development: agents of change. Saskatoon, SK: Centre for the Study of Co-operatives, University of Saskatchewan.

Stiglitz, J. (2002). Participation and development: perspectives from the comprehensive development paradigm. Review of Development Economics 6(2), 163-182.

Thomas, A. (1982). What is meant by Success for Workers co-operatives? Oxford: The Seventh Co-operative Seminar, the Plunkett Foundation.

Thomas, A. (1988). UK worker co-operatives 1987: Common ownership or equity participation. In J. E. Bayley & E. Parnell (Eds.), Yearbook of co-operative enterprise (pp. 19 – 27). Oxford: Plunkett Foundation for Co-operative Studies.

United Nations (UN), (1997). Co-operative enterprise in the health and social care sectors: A global survey. New York, NY: UN Department for Policy Co-ordination and Sustainable Development.

United Nations (2002a) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on Co-operatives in Social Development, A/56/114.

Western Economic Diversification Canada (2005).

Wylie, L. (2001). European Social Co-operatives: A Survey and Analysis of Current Developments. British Columbia Institute for Co-operative Studies, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada.

Wilson M. 2003.Corporate sustainability: what is it and where does it come from? Ivey Business Journal67 (519): 1-6.

World Commission on Environment and Development. 1987. Our Common Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Joshua Wanjare

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2016 - 2023. European Journal of Economic and Financial Research (ISSN 2501-9430) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.