Abbas Motamedi, Ali Reza Motamedi, Mohammad Reza Motamedi


Economic Resilience is a knowledge-based notion, lately launched by Imam Khamenei, the Iranian supreme leader. Economic resilience is defined as the policy-induced ability of an economy to withstand or recover from the effects of internal & external shocks. (Briguglio et al, 2008) The present paper has briefly reviewed & extended the research towards the development of a conceptual and methodological framework for the definition and measurement of economic resilience to propose an index for gauging the adequacy of policy in twenty broad areas. This exploratory, GT-based study intended to delve into two basic relevant notions, whose beneficiaries were announced to be academicians in general and academic decision makers in particular to change the curriculum in favour of promoting start-ups & mega markets. The speculation needed to satisfy two basic requirements: firstly, it has been based on a faith related endeavour and secondly it has operated like the theory of the game, working in a non-adaptable system, as a mathematical operation. In addition, Nash equilibrium seems to be part of that system, with an interaction between two poles: a religious duty & a socio-cultural, economic one, pioneered by the Imam for checks and balances on the notion.. Hence, it does not rely on a vicious circularity type of If X, then Y model. Concentration seems to be on microenterpreunership, which has been recently introduced, especially in form of new job opportunities with basic commonalities: informationalism & information processing, patent registration, Neoliberalism, database development, universities new missions and task-based ELF rather than EFL learning, while inputs are basically written in iconic language and their outputs are necessarily in English. Qualitative results, driven from an open-ended questionnaire are supportive of the research questions.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



: economic resilience, knowledge-based economy, start-ups, checks & balances


Amabile, Teresa M in Adams, Karlyn, (2005). The Sources of Innovation & Creativity. National Center on Education and the Economy (NCEE) Research Summary and Final Report by Karlyn Adams – July, 2005.

Baron (2015). At Harvard, Wharton, Columbia, MBA startup fever takes hold. Fortune Magazine, 3 January 2015. Available at

Beaudry, P., Green, D.A. and Sand, B.M. (2013). The great reversal in the demand for skill and cognitive tasks. Tech. Rep., NBER Working Paper No. 18901, National Bureau of Economic Research.

Bercovitz, J., & Feldman, M. (2006). Entrepreneurial universities and technology transfer: a conceptual framework for understanding knowledge based economic development. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 31(1), 175–188.

Blinder, A.S. and Krueger, A.B. (2013). Alternative measures of offshorability: a survey approach. Journal of Labor Economics, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. S97– S128.

Braunerhjelm, Pontus, (2010). Entrepreneurship, Innovation & Economic Growth: Past experiences, Current thinking and policy Implications. Research Network debate: Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum.

Briguglio, Lino et al, (2008). Economic Vulnerability and Resilience: Concepts and Measurements. UNU-Wider: United Nations University, World Institute for Development Economic Research. Research Paper No. 2008/55.

Bulut H, Moschini GC. (2009). U.S. universities’ net returns from patenting and licensing: a quintile regression analysis. Economics of Innovation and New Technology. 18(2): 123–137.

Caloghirou, Y. D. et al (2014). Exploring knowledge- intensive entrepreneurship in high- tech and low- tech manufacturing sectors: differences and similarities. In Hirsch-Kreinsen H. and Chwinge I. (Edited). Knowledge-Intensive Entrepreneurship in Low-Tech Industries, Edward Elgar Cheltenham, UK.

Carlson, S. (2000). A 1000-acre incubator for research and business. Chronicle of Higher Education 46(32): A49–A52.

Castells, M. (1996). The Rise of the Network Society. Malden, MA: Basil Blackwell.

Cohn, J. (2013). The robot will see you now. The Atlantic. Cortada, J.W. (2000). Before the Computer: IBM, NCR, Burroughs, and Remington Rand and the Industry They Created, 1865-1956. Princeton University Press.

Collins, Robyn, (2014). Skills for the 21st Century: teaching higher-order thinking. Queensland: the April 2014 edition of ISQ Briefings, a publication of Independent Schools Queensland. Issue: Volume 12 Issue 14 > Articles

Colombo, M. G., D'Adda, D. and Piva, E. (2010). The contribution of university research to the growth of academic start-ups: An empirical analysis. Journal of Technology Transfer, 35: 113–140.

Coon, Dennis, (2004), cited in Motamedi, (2014) ESAP, an Interface for Interactivity, International Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language learning, Isfahan, Iran, Khorasgan Islamic Azad University.

Cray, Adam, et al., (2011). Job creation: A Review of Policies and Strategies. Berkeley: e-scholarship. University of California.

Decker, Ryan et al., (2014). The Role of Entrepreneurship in US Job Creation and Economic Dynamism. Journal of Economic Perspectives—Volume 28, Number 3—Summer 2014—Pages 3–24

Entezari, Yaghoub, (2015). Building Knowledge- Based Entrepreneurship Ecosystems: Case of Iran. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 195 (2015) 1206 – 1215. Available online at 1877-0428 © 2015

Etzkowitz H, Webster A, Gebhardt C, Terra BRC. (2000). The future of the university and the university of the future: evolution of ivory tower to entrepreneurial paradigm. Research Policy 29(2): 313–330.

Fallis, George, (2004). The mission of the University. Retrieved from

Farrugia, N. (2007). ‘Conceptual Issues in Constructing Composite Indices.’ Occasional Paper on Islands and Small States, 2007-01. Malta: Islands and Small States Institute of the University of Malta.

Frey, Carl Benedikt & Osborne, Michael A. (2013). The future of employment: how susceptible are jobs to computerization? United Kingdom: university of Oxford.

Gerlovina, Zhanetta, (2011). Unraveling the Mystery behind Creativity.

Green, John M (2011). Globalization and the Teaching and Learning of English Worldwide.

Greene, P.G. et al, (2010). University-based entrepreneurship ecosystems: framing the discussion. In: FETTERS, M. L. et al. (Eds.). The development of university-based entrepreneurship ecosystems. Global practices. Cheltenham, UK: Elgar, p. 1-11.

Gupta, Priya Dhajja, et al., (2013). Firm Growth and its Determinants. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship: A Systems View across Time and Space. DOI: 10.1186/2192-5372-2-15.Gupta et al.; licensee Springer. 2013

Guy, S. 2013. U. of C. to open business incubator to spur innovation. Chicago Sun Times, October 11: Chicago, IL.

Hicks, Kristen, (2015). Why Creativity in the Classroom Matters More Than Ever.

http:// By Kristen Hicks on March 17, 2015@atxcopywriter

Hack, B. A. (2015). Critical thinking and EFL at university: Towards a trans-disciplinary classroom. In P. Clements, A. Krause, & H. Brown (Eds.), JALT2014 Conference Proceedings. Tokyo: JALT.

Imam’s Commentaries. (2017) Cited from the Imam’s Website:

Iran Entrepreneurship Association (2013). Entrepreneurship Ecosystem in Iran – Winter 2013.

Isenberg, D. (2011). The entrepreneurship ecosystem strategy as a new paradigm for economic policy: principles for cultivating entrepreneurship. Presentation at the Institute of International and European Affairs, Dublin, 12 May 2011

Klačmer Čalopa, M.; Horvat, J.; Lalić, M. Analysis of financing sources for start-up companies. Management, Vol. 19, 2014, 2, pp. 19-44

Kolympiris, Christos & Klein, Peter G., (2017). The Effects of Academic incubators on university Innovation. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 11: 145–170 (2017). Published online 30 January 2017 in Wiley Online Library ( DOI: 10.1002/sej.1242

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2007) Cultural Globalization and Language Education. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Küttim, M., Kallaste, M., Venesaar, U. and Kiis, A. (2014). Entrepreneurship education at university level and students' entrepreneurial intentions. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 110: 658–668.

Maurya, A. (2012). Running Lean: Iterate from Plan A to a Plan That Works, Accessed 20 April 2013.

Mazerov, Michael & Leachman, Michael, (2016) Center of Budget and Policy priorities State Job Creation Strategies Often Off Base.

Milovanovi, Snežana (2011). Use of the English Language in the Global Context: Intercultural Implications and Communications Trends. Economy & Market Communication Review. God. / Vol. 1. Br./No. 2. Banja Luka, December 2011; pp. 239-247

Motamedi, A. & Ghorbani, S., (2014). E-Assessment via Apps/modules, Based on the Post Methods Theorizing. I. R. Iran: International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research–Volume 3, Issue 5, Spring 2014.

Mustapha, (Abolaji Samuel) A.S. (2014). Linguistic Hegemony of the English Language in Nigeria. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura, 19(1), 83-97.

Ogundokun, M. O. (2010). Emotional intelligence and Academic Achievement: The Moderating Influence of Age, Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation. Nigeria: The African Symposium (ISSN#TX6-342-323) Volume 10, No. 2, December 2010.

Patrick, Fiona, (2013). Neoliberalism, the Knowledge Economy, and the Learner: Challenging the Inevitability of the Commodified Self as an Outcome of Education. International Scholarly Research Notices, Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 108705, 8 pages

Peters, David J., (2013) Understanding Green Occupations from a Task-Based Approach: Submitted 25 July 2013; accepted 24 August 2013.

Raeesi R. et al (2013). Understanding the Interactions among the Barriers to Entrepreneurship Using Interpretive Structural Modeling, international Journal of Business and Management; Vol. 8, No. 13; 2013.

Rao, B. & Mulloth, B. (2017). The Role of Universities in Encouraging Growth of Technology-Based New Ventures. USA: International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management. Vol. 14, No. 4 (2016) 1750014 (22 pages). #.c World Scientific Publishing Company. DOI: 10.1142/S0219877017500146

Reich, R. (1991). The work of nations: Preparing ourselves for 21st Century Capitalism. New York: Knopf.

Robinson, Sir Ken (2012). 30 Things to Awaken Creative Thinking. An article:

Roessner, D., Bond, J., Okubo, S. and Planting, M. (2013). The economic impact of licensed commercialized inventions originating in university research. Research Policy, 42, 1: 23–34.

Sachou, Maria-Eleni, (2014). Innovative Methods of Teaching. International Conference: The future of Education. Kantas School – Vrilissia (Greece).

Sanberg, Paul R., et al, (2014). Changing the academic culture: Valuing patents and commercialization toward tenure and career advancement. USA: PNAS- Proceedings of the National Academy of sciences of the United States of America. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 May 6; 111(18): 6542–6547. Published online 2014 Apr 28. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1404094111PMCID: PMC4020064Social Sciences

Shetzer, H., & Warschauer, M. (2000). An electronic literacy approach to network-based language teaching. In M. Warschauer & R. Kern (Eds.), Network-based language teaching: Concepts and practice (pp. 171-185). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Solimano, Andrés, (2009). Three Decades of Neoliberal Economics in Chile: Achievements, Failures and Dilemmas. Finland: United Nations University. Research Paper No. 2009/37. UNU-WIDER 2009. Katajanokanlaituri 6 B, 00160 Helsinki, Finland.

Spring, Joel. (2008)."Research on Globalization and Education." Review of Educational Research, Vol. 78 (2): 330-363.

Summary of Melbourne East RDA report: Creating innovation and knowledge based employment in Melbourne’s East, (July 2012). Further information on these initiatives and the full report can be found at

TechCrunch, (2014). Y Combinator will Teach a Class on Startups at Stanford this Fall. Available at at-Stanford-this-fall/.

Thomas, A., and Thorne, G. (2009), How to Increase Higher Order Thinking, Metairie, LA: Center for Development and Learning,

Thursby, JG; Thursby, MC. (2007). University licensing. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 23(4): 620–639.

Tsuda, Yukio, (2014). The Hegemony of English and Strategies for Linguistic Pluralism: Proposing the Ecology of Language Paradigm. Professor, Graduate School of International Development: Nagoya University, Aichi, 464-01, JAPAN

Torrance, E.P. (2000). Brief demonstrator form of the Torrance tests of creative thinking: Training/teaching manual for adults with technical data. Bensenville, IL: Scholastic Testing Service, Inc.

Undurraga, Tomas, (2015). Neoliberalism in Argentina and Chile: Common Antecedents, Divergent paths. Revista de Sociologia e Poltica: DOI 10.1590/1678-987315235502.

Van Looy, B., Landoni, P., Callaert, J., van Pottelsberghe, B., Sapsalis, E. and Debackere, K. (2011). Entrepreneurial effectiveness of European universities: An empirical assessment of antecedents and trade-offs. Research Policy, 40: 553–564.

Venugopal, Rajesh, (2015). Neoliberalism as Concept. London School of Economics and Political Sciences. Economy and Society Vol.44 (2) April 2015.

Vogel, Peter, (2014). Building and assessing entrepreneurship ecosystems. Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Growth-Oriented Entrepreneurship Workshop, OECD LEED Programme and the Netherlands’ Ministry of Economic Affairs.

Wang, Amber Yayin, (2011). Creativity and Cross-cultural Differences. Journal of International and cross-cultural studies. ISSN 1948-5786 Volume 2, Issue 1, 2011

Warschauer, Mark, (2000). The Changing Global Economy and the Future of English Teaching. TESOL QUARTERLY Vol.34, No. 3, autumn 2000.

White, Sammis, B. (2011). Job creation strategies for Iowa. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Iowa Family Impact Seminar, May 20, 2011

Woolf, B.P. (2010). Building intelligent interactive tutors: Student-centered strategies for revolutionizing e-learning. Morgan Kaufmann.

Youn, Hyejin, et al., (2015) Invention as a combinatorial process: evidence from US patents. Published 22 April 2015.DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2015.0272.

Youtie, J; Shapira, P. (2008). Building an innovation hub: a case study of the transformation of university roles in regional technological and economic development. Research Policy 37(8): 1188–1204.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Abbas Motamedi, Ali Reza Motamedi, Mohammad Reza Motamedi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2016 - 2023. European Journal of Economic and Financial Research (ISSN 2501-9430) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.