THE COMMON AND PROPER NOUNS BETWEEN ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH

Shkelqim Millaku

Abstract


The noun in Albanian language classified as common and proper. The common nouns in turn divide into countable and uncountable. Collective nouns and substance nouns are subclasses of the other classes. 

The structure of noun formation between Albanian and English on the general aspect of morphology and syntax still didn’t study in the way of comparative, contrast and generative. Those fields are our object of study. In Albanian and English we find some concepts of studies for noun for example: “Emër quhet ajo pjesë e ligjëratës që emërton qenie të gjalla dhe sende dhe ka kategoritë gramatikore të gjinisë, numrit, rasës, të shquarsisë e të pashquarsisë”.[1]  

Nouns can be broadly into a small number of classes that have meaning and grammatical behavior. “Nouns (alb. Emër) belong to open class set of items. The set is indefinitely extendable since new nouns are constantly created and are added to the existing register of English nouns. The server denotes people, objects, places, events and phenomena”.[2]   

There is an important distinct common and proper nouns. Common nouns can be countable and uncountable. Countable nouns refer to entities which can be counted, they are singular and plural forms (a cow, two cows) etc.). Both in the singular and plural there is a contrast between definite and indefinite forms (a cow, two cows, the cows). Uncountable nouns refer to entities which cannot be counted and uncounted for

number. Though they do not combine with the indefinite article, the contrast between an indefinite and definite form (e.g. milk, the milk)…[3]


[1] Fatmir Agalli (...), Gramatika e gjuhës shqipe I, Tiranë, 2002, p. 81.

[2] Shukrane Gërmizaj, A Comprehensive handbook of English Grammar, Prishtina, 2004, p.147.

[3] Douglas Biber, Sitg Johansson, Grammar of spoken and written English, London, England, 1999, p.245.


Keywords


noun, Albanian and English language, common, proper

References


Abney, S.P. (1987). The English noun phrase in its sentential aspect. Cambridge.

Aboh, E. O. (2004). The morphosyntax of complement-head sequences. New York.

Wojcicki, A. (1995). Constraints on suffixation, Tubingen. Germany.

Adams, V. (1973). An introduction to modern English word-formation. London.

Carnie, A. (2002). Syntax. Oxford.

Radford, A. (2004). English Syntax. Cambridge.

Radford, A. (1997). Syntactic theory and the structure of English.Cambridge.

Radford, A. (2004). English syntax. Cambridge.

Spencer, A & Arnold Zwicky . (1998). The Handbook of Morphology, Malden (USA).

Downing, A & Philip Locke. (2002). A university English grammar. London.

Becker, A & Markus Bieswanger . (2006). Introduction to English linguistics. Germany.

Mark, A. (2005). What is Morphology. Malden.

Aronoff, M. (1992). Morphology now, State University of New York.

Aronoff, M. (1975). Word Formation in Generative Grammar. Cambridge.

Bas, A. (2008). English syntax and argumentation. Cambridge.

Baker, C.L. (1995). English Syntax. London.

Connor, F. (1993). The Meaning of Syntax. New York.

Kallulli, D. (19999). The Comparative Syntax of Albanian. Durham.

Adger, D. (2003). Core Syntax. Oxford.

Kruising, E. (1995). English Accidence and Syntax. Wien.

Herburger, E. (1990). English noun phrase structure. Wien.

Selkirk, E. (182). The syntax of Words. London.

Bach, E. (1966). An Introduction to Transformation grammar. New York.

Bach, E. (1968). Noun and Noun-Phrase. New York.

George, Y. (2006). The Study of language. New York.

Georgio, G. (2003). Sintaksa, struktura e ligjërimit, përkth. Blerta Topalli. Tiranë.

Gerhard, N. (1971). Papers in Contrastive Linguistics. Cambridge.

Gerrit, R. (1999). First Explorations in English Syntax. London.

Giordano, E. (1963). Fjalori i Arbëreshëve të Italisë. Bari.

Giorgio, G. (2003). Sintaksa (përkthyese Blerta Topalli). Tiranë.

Goçi, I. (1986). Antonimet e Gjuhës se sotme shqipe. Prishtinë.

Graeme, K. (2003). Structure and meaning in English. Great Britain.

Grup autoresh. (2002). Gramatika e Gjuhës shqipe I. Tiranë.

Grup autoresh. (2002).Gramatika e gjuhës shqipe II. Tiranë.

Ian, R. (1997). Comparative Syntax. London.

Ingo, P. (2003). Word-formation in English. Cambridge.

Jackenddoff, R. (1972). The structure of English noun. Cambridge.

Miller, J. (2002). An Introduction English syntax. Edimburg.

Bresnan, J. (1979). Theory of Complementation in English syntax. London.

Andeson, J. (1968). The grammar of case. London.

Andeson, J. (1975). Noun phrase as adjective. London.

Hewson, J. (1972). Article and noun in English. Paris.

Jensen, J. (1990). Morphology. Word Structure in Generative Grammar. Amsterdam.

Lyons, J. (1968). Introduction to theoretical linguistical. Cambridge.

Michael, L. J. (1973). Studies in English Generics. London.

Askedal, O, J. (2010). Noam Chomsky and language descriptions. Philadelphia.

John, E. (1997). Oxford Practice Grammar. London

Jokl, N. (1972). “Naim be Frashëri e pasunimi i gjuhës shqipe”, Gjurmime albanologjike, Seria e shkencave filologjike II. Prishtinë.

Josif, M. (2005). Hyrje në sintaksën gjenerative. Prishtinë.

Josif, M. (2008). Rendi i fjalëve dhe struktura e fjalive kohore. Prishtinë.

Juhn, A. (1977). On case grammar, London.

Karl, R. (1982). Ctegorial grammar and word-formation, Tubingen. Germany.

Kayen, R. (1982). Nouns and Predicate, Glow. Newsletter.

Kazumi, M. (1979). Syntax and Style in Early English. Tokyo.

Langendoen, T. (1969). The study of syntax. New York.

Lasnik, H. (2002).The minimalit Program in Syntax. Cambridge.

Laurie, B. (1983). English word-formation. New York.

Laurie, B. (1983). English Word Formation. Cambridge.

Lawri, B. (1996). English Word-formation. Cambridge.

Lees, R. B. (1960). The Grammar of English Nominalization. The Hague. Mouton.

Leonard, B. (20099). The syntax of argument structure. Cambridge.

Newmark, L. (1982). Philip Hubbard, Peter Prifti. Standard Albanian, A reference grammar for students. Stanford, California. USA.

Leslie, D. Alan Riding. (2004). Essential Shakespeare handbook. London.

Lilane, H. (1997). The New Comparative syntax. London.

Lloshi, Xh. (1999). Stilistika dhe Pragmatika. Tiranë.

Loyd, G. (1974). Albanian phonology. Wiesbaden. Germany.

Lynn, B. (1999). English syntax. New York.

Lyons, J. (1970). Generative Syntax. Harmondsworth.

Lyons, J. (1984). Language Linguistics. Cambridge University Pres.

Camaj, M. (1984). Albanian grammar. Wiesbaden, Germany.

Matthews, P.H. (1984). Syntax, Cambridge.

Max M. (2002). Doing Grammar. New York.

Çeliku, M (…). (1996). Gramatika e gjuhës shqipe II. Tiranë.

Memushaj, R. (2008). Gjuhësi gjenerative. Tiranë.

Merxhani, B. (1998). Formula të Neoshqiptarismës. Prishtinë.

Michael, M. (2008). English and American literature. Stuttgart.

Michaela, M. (2005). English General Nouns. Liverpool.

Mita, J. (2005). Hyrje në sintaksën gjenerative. Prishtinë.

Nushi, M. (2003). Gjuha e sotme shqipe. Prishtinë.

Chomsky, N. (1972). Studies on semantics in generative grammar. Paris.

Chomsky, N. (1980). Rules and representation. Oxford, London.

Chomsky, N. (1982). The generative enterprise. Dordrecht. Holland.

Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge.

Chomsky, N. (1986). Knowledge of language. New York.

Chomsky, N. (2002). Syntactic Structures. New York.

Chomsky, N. (2007). Language and problems of knowledge, (përkth. në shqip Blerta Topalli). Tiranë.

Chomsky, N. 2010). Development of the Anglo-Saxon Language and Linguistic Universal. Philadelphia. Culicover, P. (1976). Syntax. New York.

Culicover, P. (1992). Syntax. London.

Culicover, P. (2005). Simple syntax. Oxford.

Culicover, P. (2007). Simpler syntax. Oxford.

Sgall, P (…). (1968). A functional approach to syntax, in generative description of language. New York.

Qesku, P. (2002). Fjalor Anglisht-Shqip, English-Albanian Dictionery. Tiranë.

Quirk R & Sidney Greenbaum. (1985). A comprehensive grammar of the English language. New York.

Raymond, M. (1986). English Grammar In Use. Cambridge.

Van, R. (1997). Valinm Randy, LaPolla. Syntax. New York.

Huddleston, R. (1976). An Introduction to English transformation syntax. New York.

Huddleston, R., Geoffrey Pullum. (2002). The Cambridge grammar of the English language. Cambridge.

Millaku, Sh. (2009). Kontributi i Zellik Harris për gjuhësinë, IASH. Tetovë.

Millaku, Sh. (2015). Kërkime gjuhësore. Prizren.

Millaku, Sh. (2011). Studime gjuhësore I. Prishtinë.

Millaku, Sh. (2011). Strukturat sintaksore. Prishtinë.

Millaku, Sh. (2009). (Profesor Selman Riza dhe Albanologjia) Studimet e Selman Rizes në fushën e morfologjisë. Korçë, f. 143-150.

Millaku, Sh. (2011). Historiku i nyjës se prapme (kontrast me gjuhët ballkanike), Edukologjia, nr.2, f.81-96. Prishtinë.

Millaku, Shkelqim

The contrast of Direct Object between Albanian and English language

ISSN: 2454-1362, http://www.onlinejournal.in - http://imperialjournals.com/index.php/IJIR/article/view/1320/1270 http://www.onlinejournal.in/IJIRV2I7/253.pdf

Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, Dubai, 2016.

Millaku, Shkelqim The contrast of the gender between Albanian and English language, International Journal of Thales Educational Sciences (THEDS) ISSN (print): 2149-5130 - http://media.wix.com/ugd/d4d001_2582d04ef0264786b60ca6e76227ebc3.pdf

-15; Vol.2, No.1, Turqi, 2016

Millaku, Shkelqim, 2015, The Compound Nouns, https://www.academia.edu/6091482/The_Compound_Nouns

Millaku, Shkelqim, 2016, The Noun Phrases, Anglisticum Journal,

http://www.anglisticum.mk/index.php/Anglisticum/article/viewFile/580/6 47

Millaku, Shkelqim, 2015, The Direct Object, Anglisticum Journal,

http://anglisticum.mk/index.php/Anglisticum/article/view/233, Retrieved on February 17, 2016.

Millaku, Shkelqim, 2015, The Genitive, Anglisticum Journal

http://www.anglisticum.mk/index.php/Anglisticum/article/view/156

Retrieved on February 17, 2016 http://aassee.eu/anglisticum.mk/index.php/Anglisticum/article/view/1218

Millaku, Shkelqim, THE FUNCTION OF NOUN PHRASES BETWEEN ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH, The 2016 WEI International Academic Conference Proceedings Vienna, Austria:

http://www.westeastinstitute.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Shkelqim- Millaku.pdf

Pinker, S. (1984). Language Learnability of language development. London.

Mann, S. A. (1932). Short Albanian grammar. London.

Evertsen, L.S. (2004). Native American Literatures, New York.

Chalker, S, Edomnd Weiner. (1994). The Oxford dictionary of English grammar.

Givon, T. (1993). English grammar I. Philadelphia.

Givon, T. (1996). English grammar. Philadelphia.

Jupp, T.C & John Milne. (1968). English sentence structure. London.

Kelmendi, T. (2006). Kështjella e sintaksës. Prishtinë.

Kelmendi, T. (2008). Studime sintaksore. Prishtinë.

Verlag, V. (1986). English Grammar. Berlin.

Harris, Z. (1951). Structural linguistic. London.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v0i0.827

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Shkelqim Millaku

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).