Angeliki Chantziantoniou, Ourania Bousiou, Maria Pavlis-Korres


The Single Payment Authority (SPA) is a Public Organization that complies with the most modern management systems, seeking the maximum utilization of human resources and a high degree of effectiveness and efficiency in Greece and Europe. The present study attempts to investigate the training needs, attitudes, and views of the staff of the SPA in the context of reform actions and modernization of the Public Administration. The necessity of the study is considered important so that the personnel managed by SPA are able to face the challenges and respond to crisis conditions. The aim of the study is to highlight the benefits civil servants gain by attending training programs, identify the barriers hindering their participation in the training programs offered and define new subjects for training programs that will cover the modern needs of SPA employees. The sources of investigation for the systematic collection of information and data analysis were based on the method of triangulation with literature review, interviews and questionnaires ensuring validity and activating the meritocratic judgment. From the research results, it becomes clear that the training in the public sector needs to improve in terms of subject areas, methodology, as well as adult educational methods and techniques in order to satisfy the constantly changing needs of the services. Needs analysis must be included as a vital step of any educational program design in order to meet the needs of SPA employees today, thus upgrading the services and facilitating its development.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


public administration, training in Covid-19 period, investigation of educational needs, Continuing Professional Training (CPT), lifelong learning

Full Text:



Alexiadis, A., & Peristera, B. (2000, September). Efficiency in Public Administration. Administrative Information, vol.18, pp. 25-38. (In Greek).

Andreou, K., Galenianos, M., Genakos, X., Doxiadis, A., Karamouzis, N. Kountouri, F & Tsakloglou, P. (2020, November). Development plan for the Greek economy. Final essay. (In Greek). Retrieved from:

Armakolas, S. (2018). Investigation, analysis and study of the factors that. Patras: Doctoral dissertation, University of Patras. (In Greek).

Bacal, R. (2004). Manager’s guide to performance reviews. New York: McGraw Hill.

Balapanidou, A. (2015). Lifelong learning opportunities in Greek Public Libraries, in response to modern technological and socio-economic challenges. Thessaloniki: D.E. University of Macedonia, Department of Educational and Social Policy. (In Greek).

Belli, A. (1996). In-service education and training in Public Services. In Education and Training in The Public Sector. Athens: Metaichmio. (In Greek).

Benos, S. (1997). Economist Conference: Quality - the key to success. Experiences examples from Europe and the USA. Athens, pp. 1-9: Speech by the Deputy Minister of Interior, Public Administration and Decentralization. (In Greek).

Bergidis, D. (2005). Social and economic dimensions of adult education. In D. Vergidis, & E. Prokou, Elements of socio-economic operation Patra: Hellenic Open University, pp. 52-57. (In Greek).

Briefing EPRS Ideas Paper Thinking about future EU policy. (2021). The future of work Trends, challenges and potential initiatives. Recovery from:

Buelens M. & Van den Broeck, H. (2007). An analysis of Differences in Work Motivation Between Public and Private Sector Organizations, Public Administration Review, Vol.67, No.1, 65-74.

Caffarella, R. (1988). Program Development and Evaluation: Resource Book for Trainers. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Caffarella, R. S. (2002). Planning Programs for Adult Learners: a Practical Guide for Educators, Trainers and Staff Developers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Chytiris, L. (2001). Human Resource Management. Athens: Interbrooks, pp.113-159. (In Greek).

Chytiris, L. (2017). Organizational Behavior: Concepts, Theory and Ways of Behavior for Effective Management. Athens: Benos. (In Greek).

CEDEFOP (2016). The great divide: Digitalisation and digital skill gaps in the EU workforce. Thessaloniki, Greece: ESJsurvey Insights, 9.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2000). Research Methods in Education (5th ed.). London: Routledge Falmer.

Collins, C., J., Clark, K., & D. (2003). Strategic human resource practices, top management team social networks, and firm performance: The role of human resource practices in creating organizational competitive advantage. Academy of Management Journal: 46(6), pp. 740-751.

Cross, P., & K. (1981). Adults as learners: Increasing participation and facilitating learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

DAILY. (2007). Civil servants can be re-examined in new technologies. (In Greek). Recovery from:

Dimitriadis, S. (2015). Learning Theories & Educational Software. National Technical University of Athens, Zografou: Association of Greek Academic Libraries (SEAB). (In Greek).

ΕΚΤ, (2020). 10th annual conference “e-Government Forum” for the digital transformation of the public sector. (In Greek). Retrieved from: and in the third paragraph from:

EKDDA. (2008). Training xi- Education in modern Public Administration. (pp. 37-47). Athens: National Printing House: ISBN: 978-960-8494-03-9. (In Greek).

EPRS/European Parliamentary Research Service, (2018, February). The impact of new technologies on the labour market and the social economy. Study, Science and Technology Options Assessment. Scientific Foresight Unit (STOA).IP/G/STOA/FWC/2013-001/LOT 8/C1. Retrieved from:

Frokjaer, Erik, Hertum, M., & Hornbaek, K. (2000). Measuring usability: Are effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction really correlated? Retrieved from:

Haniotou, M. (2019). The training of the Customs officials of the Independent Public Revenue Authority (A.A.D.E.). Athens: D.E. Hellenic Open University. (In Greek).

Houston, D. J. (2000). Public-service motivation: a multivariate test. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 10 No. 4, 713-727.

IOBE, I. O.-T. (2020). 11th Memorial Volume for Takis Citizen. The next day of the Greek economy challenges and development prospects. (In Greek).

Kalliga, A. (2011). EKDDA -Motivation of public employees in a period of economic crisis. Problems and techniques of dressing civil servants. The case study of the National Center for Public Administration and Local Government (EKDDA). (In Greek). Retrieved from:

Kanaki-Protoppa, S. (2001). The philosophical background of lifelong learning, its necessity for self-affirmation but also the professional prestige of modern man. The philosophical background of lifelong education, its necessity for self-affirmation, but also the professional prestige of modern man. Volos: Proceedings of the International Pedagogical Conference, University of Thessaly, pp. 220. (In Greek).

Karalis, Th. (2005). Planning, Administration, Evaluation of Adult Education Programs. Program Design, T. B, Patras: Hellenic Open University. (In Greek).

Karalis, Th. (2013). Incentives and barriers to adult participation in lifelong learning. Athens: INE GSEVEE. (In Greek).

Karatzoglou, G. (2011). The Strategy of Training in Public Administration. Thessaloniki: D.E., University of Macedonia. (In Greek).

Karachalios, M., Diniakos, I., Prevezanou, K., & Protopapas, M. (2012). Civil Servants and Citizens Relationships: A Guide to Good Administrative Behavior. Athens: Ombudsman. (In Greek).

Knowles, M. S. (1980). The modern practice of adult education. New York: Cambridge.

Kyriakidis, L., Iakovidis, G., & Panda, D. (2017). Proceedings of the 1st International Scientific Conference. Educational Leadership, Effective Management and Ethical Values. Volume GD Educational Administration and Efficiency. Thessaloniki: University of Macedonia. (In Greek).

Landorf, H., Doscher, S., & Rocco, T. (2008). Education for sustainable human development: Towards a definition. School Field: 6(2), pp. 221-236.

Leftheriotou, P. (2014). Design of Adult Education Programs in Greece: The Case of the General Secretariat for Lifelong Learning (Doctoral Thesis). Patras: Hellenic Open University. (In Greek).

Lefteriotou, P. (2020). Design of Adult Education Programs. In M. Pavlis Korres & P. Leftheriotou Design of Face to Face and E-learning non-Formal Education Programs for Adults, pp. 25-128. Athens: Ypsilon. (in Greek)

Lorrena, C., & Dieguez, A. (2018). Educational materials for the training program of the DEMAL project. Planning, Evaluation and Attendance of courses for adults (e.Learning. Bonn: Erasmus Strategic Consortium.

Makridimitri, A., & Michalopoulos, N. (1998). Expert Reports on Public Administration 1950-1998. Athens: Papaziais, pp.706-730. (In Greek).

Makridimitris, A. (2013). Management Science II: Approaches to Theory of Organizations, Edition. Athens-Thessaloniki: Sakkoulas. (In Greek).

Mavrogiorgos, G. (1999). An answer to exclusion: Lifelong learning. In: G. Tsiakalos - E. Spanou (ed.): Human Dignity and Social Exclusion. Athens: Hellenic Letters, pp. 101, 259-267. (In Greek).

Messaris, D., Kodonas, D., Komseli, F., Tsiganou, I., & Balourdos, D. (2011). Detection of educational needs and evaluation of the results of the training. Athens: EKDDA. (In Greek).

Moseley, J. L., & Heaney, M. J. (1994). Needs assessment across disciplines. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 7(1), 60–79. doi:10.1111/j.1937-8327.1994.tb00617.x

Papadopoulou, M. (2018). Human Resources Management in companies and organizations. Case study private school. Athens: Graduate thesis of the Postgraduate Studies program in the "Education of Educational Units" School of Management and Economics. (In Greek).

Papasavvas, A. (2020). The professional development of teachers. (In Greek). Retrieved from:

Pavlis-Korres, Μ., & Leftheriotou, P. (2016). Building Interaction in Adults' Online Courses: A Case Study on Training E-Educators of Adults. In L. Kyei-Blankson, E. Ntuli, & C. Agyeman, Handbook of Research on Strategic Management of Interaction, Presence and Participation in Online Courses (pp. 185-215). USA: IGI-Global.

Pavlis Korres, M., & Leftheriotou, P. (2020). Design of Face to Face and E-learning non-Formal Education Programs for Adults. Athens: Ypsilon. (in Greek)

Paralimou, Ch. (2020). Motivations and obstacles of the employees of e-EFKA of the Attica Region for their participation in training programs of INEP of EKDDA. (In Greek). Retrieved from:

Passas, A., & Tsekos, Th. (2004). The Vocational Training of Civil Servants, European and Greek Experience. GSEE Labor Institute - ADEDY. (In Greek).

Pavli, E. (2019). Motivation of Human Resources in Modern Public Administration. (In Greek). Retrieved from:

Prensky, M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. On the Horizon, NCB University Press, 9(5).

Roidis, N. (2021). The application of the teleworking model in Greek Public Administration in the light of the Covid-19 pandemic. (In Greek). Retrieved from:

Rogers, A. (2007). Teaching Adults. Open University Press.

Rummler, G., & Brache, A. (1995). Improving Performance, Second Edition, Jossey-Bass Inc, pp.13.

STUDY - Science and Technology Options Assessment, (2018). EPRS/European Parliamentary Research Service/scientific Foresight Unit (STOA) PE 614539. The impact of new technologies on the Laboure market and the social economy. Retrieved from:

Tarnari, E. (2021). eGovernment: adoption of new technologies in the public sector. (In Greek). Retrieved from:

Termini, V. (2008). Training and Education in Modern Public Administration. Proceedings of the EKDDA conference. (In Greek). Retrieved from:

Theodoritsi, D., & Kalogridi, S. (2020). Training as a factor of professional and personal development of teachers: The case of the Major Training Program. Retrieved from: (In Greek).

Tippelt, R. (1999). Systems of Lifelong Learning and Continuing Education. In K. Haris, N. Petroulakis and S. Nikodimos (Eds.) Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning: International Experience and Greek Perspective, Proceedings of the International Pedagogical Conference. Volos: University of Thessaly.

Tsimaras, D., & Salis, A. (2009). E-Learning in the Greek Public. International Conference on Open & Distance Education, Athens, T.5: ΕΚΤ-ePublishing. (In Greek).

White, L. (2000). Changing the Whole System in the Public Sector, Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol 13, No 2, 2000, pp.162-177.

Greek Law

Ν.3845/2010 (FEK 65 Α΄). Retrieved from:

Ν.3870/2010 (FEK 138 Α΄). Retrieved from:

/37345/0004/6-10-2010 ΚΥΑ (FEK 784/Β΄). Retrieved from:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Angeliki Chantziantoniou, Ourania Bousiou, Maria Pavlis-Korres

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).