Esra Barut Tugtekin


As digital tools expand in daily life; the accumulation of digital files has become a notable problem. Considering the negative impact of digital hoarding behavior, developing a measurement tool to measure the extent of digital hoarding among individuals is essential. For the Digital Hoarding Questionnaire, developed as part of this research, the scale was adapted to the Turkish target language, and the adapted scale was applied to college students. The adapted scale was a valid and reliable measurement tool. This study also aimed to determine the relationship and interaction between participants' digital hoarding behaviors, IT self-efficacy, and IT anxiety. A survey research method was conducted to examine the research subject. The study was conducted with 478 college students. According to the research findings, the participants’ accumulated photo files the most, and the most important reason for not deleting files was the belief they might be helpful in the future. All relationships between IT self-efficacy, IT anxiety, and digital hoarding were significant. According to the results, accumulating files makes no difference in hoarding behavior, while not deleting files makes a difference. When IT anxiety was controlled, gender made no significant difference in IT self-efficacy and digital hoarding behavior. Therefore, it is believed that the scale and results of this study will be an introductory research guide for studies that focus on determining digital file hoarding behavior.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


digital hoarding, information technologies self-efficacy, information technologies anxiety, collage students

Full Text:



Akturk, A. O., & Delen, A. (2020). The relationship between teachers’ technology acceptance levels and self-efficacy beliefs. Science, Education, Art and Technology Journal, 4(2), 67-80.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.

Arikan, D. (2002). The attitudes of teacher candidates towards computers, their computer anxiety levels and their evaluation of computer course. Master's Thesis, D. E. University Institute of Education Sciences.

Askar, P., & Umay, A. (2001). Perceived computer self-efficacy of the students in the elementary mathematics teaching programme. H. U. Journal of Education, 21, 1-8.

Barut Tugtekin, E., & Dursun, Ö. Ö. (2020). Examining virtual identity profiles of social network users with respect to certain variables. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 10(2), 427-464.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Berger, R., Romeo, M., Gidion, G., & Poyato, L. (2016). Media use and

technostress. In L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez & I. Candel Torres (Eds.), Proceedings of 10th International Technology, Education and Development Conference. Valencia: IATED Academy.

Bergman, O., & Beyth-Marom, R. (2003). The user-subjective approach to personal information management systems. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 54, 872-878.

Bilal, K., Baccour, E., Erbad, A., Mohamed, A., & Guizani, M. (2019). Collaborative joint caching and transcoding in mobile edge networks. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 136, 86-99.

Boardman, R., & Sasse, M. A. (2004). Stuff goes into the computer and doesn't come out: A cross-tool study of personal information management. In R. Grinter, T. Rodden, P. Aoki, E. Cutrell, R. Jeffries, & G. Olson (Eds.), Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 583-590). New York, NY: ACM.

Bozaci, İ., & Gokdeniz, İ. (2020). Development of a digital photo hoarding scale: A research with undergraduate students. Management Science Letters, 10, 2193-2200.

Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. NY: Guilford Publications.

Dabbish, L. A., Kraut, R. E., Fussell, S., & Kiesler, S. (2005). Understanding email use: Predicting action on a message. Proceedings of The SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 691-700).

Doyle, E., Stamouli, I., & Huggard, M. (2005). Computer anxiety, self-efficacy, computer experience: An investigation throughout a computer science degree. Proceedings of 35th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference. Indianapolis.

Durndell, A., & Haag, Z. (2002). Computer self-efficacy, computer anxiety, attitude to the Internet and reported experience with the internet, by gender, in an East European sample. Computers in Human Behavior, 18(5), 521-535.

Fan, A., Wu, L. L., Miao, L., & Mattila, A. S. (2020). When does technology anthropomorphism help alleviate customer dissatisfaction after a service failure? - The moderating role of consumer technology self-efficacy and interdependent self-construal, Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 29(3), 269-290,

Frost, R. O., & Hartl, T. L. (1996). A cognitive-behavioral model of compulsive hoarding. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34(4), 341-350.

Goldstein, S., Dudley, E. A., Erickson, C. M., & Richer, N. L. (2002). Personality traits and computer anxiety as predictors of Y2K anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior, 18, 271-284.

Gormley, C. J., & Gormley, S. J. (2012). Data hoarding and information clutter: The impact of cost, life span of data, effectiveness, sharing, productivity and knowledge management culture. Issues in Information Systems, 13, 90-95.

Gupta, S., & Bostrom, R. P. (2019). A revision of computer self-efficacy conceptualizations in information systems. ACM SIGMIS Database: The DATABASE for Advances in Information Systems, 50(2), 71-93.

Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. (2008). Structural equation modelling: guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(53), 60.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55.

Huck, S. W. (2012). Reading statistics and research (6.ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Isleyen, M. (2019). The new disease of the digital age: Digital hoarding. Akdeniz University Faculty of Communication Journal, (31), 404-420.

Jokisch, M. R., Schmidt, L. I., Doh, M., Marquard, M., & Wahl, H. W. (2020). The role of internet self-efficacy, innovativeness and technology avoidance in breadth of internet use: Comparing older technology experts and non-experts. Computers in Human Behavior, 111, 106408.

Joreskog, K. G., & Sorbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language. Scientific Software International.

Kelloway, E. K. (1998). Using LISREL for structural equation modeling: A researcher's guide. Sage.

Lee, C. L., & Huang, M. K. (2014). The influence of computer literacy and computer anxiety on computer self-efficacy: The moderating effect of gender. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17(3), 172-180.

Luxon, A. M., Hamilton, C. E., Bates, S., & Chasson, G. S. (2019). Pinning our possessions: Associations between digital hoarding and symptoms of hoarding disorder. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, 21, 60-68.

Luxon, A. M., Hamilton, C. E., Bates, S., & Chasson, G. S. (2019). Pinning our possessions: Associations between digital hoarding and symptoms of hoarding disorder. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, 21, 60-68.

Meuter, M. L., Bitner, M. J., Ostrom, A.L., & Brown, S. W. (2005).

Choosing among alternative service delivery modes: An investigation of customer trial of self-service technologies. Journal of Marketing, 69, 61-83.

Neave, N., Briggs, P., McKellar, K., & Sillence, E. (2019). Digital hoarding behaviours: Measurement and evaluation. Computers in Human Behavior, 96, 72-77.

Oketunji, I. (2012). Application of information technologies in Nigeria: Problems and prospects. Proceeding of 10th Biennial conference of the National Association of Library and Information Science Educators, 7-20.

Oravec, J. A. (2018). Virtual hoarding. In M. Khosrow-Pour (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology (4th ed.), 4306-4314. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. 78-1-5225-2255-3.ch373

Osisanwo, T., Ehioghae, M., & Abdulsalaam, T. (2019). Computer anxiety as correlate of use of information technology tools among undergraduates of library and information science in Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun, Ogun State. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management, 10(2), 19-38.

Ozturk, E. (2013). An investigation on prospective teacher’s computer anxiety and computer self-efficacy based on several variables. H. U. Journal of Education, 44(44), 275-286.

Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS version 15 (3. edition). New York: Open University Press.

Pfaffinger, K. F., Reif, J. A., Spieß, E., & Berger, R. (2020). Anxiety in a digitalised work environment. Gruppe. Interaktion. Organisation. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Organisationspsychologie (GIO), 1-11.

Preece, P. F. W. (1979). Student teacher anxiety and class‐control problems on teaching practice: A cross‐lagged panel analysis. British Educational Research Journal, 5(1), 13-19.

Schiele, K., & Ucok Hughes, M. (2013). Possession rituals of the digital consumer: A study of Pinterest. In G. Cornelissen, E. Reutskaja, & A. Valenzuela (Eds.), European Advances in Consumer Research, 10, 47-50. Duluth, MN: Association for Consumer Research.

Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2010). A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling (3. edition). New York: Routledge.

Schull, N. D. (2018). Digital containment and its discontents. History and Anthropology, 29(1), 42-48.

Sedera, D., & Lokuge, S. (2018). Is digital hoarding a mental disorder? Development of a construct for digital hoarding for future IS research. In Proceedings of The Thirty Ninth İnternational Conference on Information Systems. San Francisco, CA.

Sumer, N. (2000). Structural Equation Modeling: Basic Concepts and Applications. Türk Psikoloji Yazilari, 3(6), 49-74.

Sweeten, G., Sillence, E., & Neave, N. (2018). Digital hoarding behaviours: Underlying motivations and potential negative consequences. Computers in Human Behavior, 85, 54-60.

Thompson, B. (2004). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: Understanding concepts and applications. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

van Bennekom, M. J., Blom, R. M., Vulink, N., & Denys, D. (2015). A case of digital hoarding. British Medical Journal Clinical Research, 1-4. 2015-210814

Vitale, F., Janzen, I., & McGrenere, J. (2018). Hoarding and minimalism: Tendencies in digital data preservation. In Proceedings of the 2018 CHI conference on human factors in computing systems (CHI ‘18).

We Are Socials. (2021). Dijital 2021 report.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Esra Barut Tugtekin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).