Ben Adzrolo, Kenneth Asamoah-Gyimah, Andrews Cobbinah, Ruth Annan-Brew


This paper investigated the causes and possible strategies to minimize examination malpractices in Senior High Schools (SHSs) in Ghana. A descriptive survey design with a quantitative approach was used for the study. Proportional stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select a sample of 335 respondents which comprised 302 students and 33 teachers. Frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations were used to analyse the data gathered. The findings revealed that the leading cause of examination malpractices was ‘insufficient students’ preparation for WASSCE and Public education on effects of examination malpractices has also emerged as the number one strategy to minimize the menace. It was concluded that in schools where a conducive environment and teaching/ learning materials are not provided for effective academic work, performance falls below what is expected, to achieve academic success, students and teachers engage in examination malpractices to raise the academic image of the school. It was recommended that school authorities provide a conducive teaching and learning environment to ensure effective academic work in schools to minimize the menace.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


examination, examination malpractice, cheating, ranking, strategies, causes, invigilator

Full Text:



Abuga, M. (2015). Teachers challenged to stand against examination malpractices. Retrieved August 18, 2016, from http://www.hivisasa.com/nyamir-a/news/105804.

Adams, O. U., & Esther, O. D. (2013). Stakeholders’ role in curbing examination malpractice in in Nigeria, retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Adebayo, S. O. (2012). Students’ perception of the role of parents in academic and continued examination malpractice. Academic Journals and Books. Retrieve May 2, 2014, from http://www.aeaafrican.org.

Anderman, E., & Midgley, C. (2016). Most high school students’ cheat. New York lives Science Review, 5-7.

Asante, K. (2014). Inclining factors towards examination malpractice among students in Takoradi Polytechnic, Ghana. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(22), 1-9

Asante-Kyei, M. & Nduro, S. B. (2014). Causes of examination misconducts in Secondary Schools. Journal of Education and practice, 8 (20), 1-12.

Bassey, E. O., Bessong, F. E., Onete, U. O., Etim, C., & Achigbe, M. O. (2010). An investigation into the forces behind examination malpractices in Nigeria: A challenge for secondary school education in the new millennium. Journal of Education Assessment in African, 4, 33-44

Bruno, U., & Obidigbo, G. (2012). The counselling implications of examination malpractices among university undergraduates. Research Journal of Organizational Psychology and Educational Studies, 1(2), 199 – 202.

Busayo, I. (2008). Library intervention strategies against examination malpractices in a tertiary education institution. In N. Achebe, (Ed.), Library and Information Literacy for Higher Education. 2Pnd Ped. (pp. 65-89). Enugu, Nigeria: Nigeria Library Association.

Christian, N. J. (2015, July, 20). The alarming rate of examination malpractices in Ghanaian schools. Finder, p.2.

Chukwuemeka, I. V. (1982). The challenges of examination irregularities. Lagos: Public Relation Department, West Africa Examination Council.

Denga, D. I. (2005). Education at a glance: From cradle to tomb. Calabar: REP Ltd.

Dzakadzie, Y. (2015). Stakeholders’ attitude towards examination malpractices in Senior High Schools in Volta Region of Ghana. African Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 8, 35-43.

Ene, O. C., & Ursula, C. N. (2015). Strategies for effective conduct for examination in a tertiary institution in Enugu State. Ife: Cardinal Crest ltd.

Fagbemi, A. (2011). Assessment and education malpractice. Proceeding of the 16th annual. Congress of the Nigeria Academy of Education held in the University of Jos, November 12-16.

Fayombo, G. A. (2014). Assuring quality in school practices and strategies. 1st National Conference of the Institute of Education, Olabisi Onabanjo University Conference Proceedings, p. 160-167

Isangedighi, A. J. (2007). Child psychology. Calabar, Nigeria: Eti-Nwa Associates.

Jega, A. M. (2006). Examination malpractices: Concept, causes, consequences and remedies. Education for Today, 6(2) 59-72.

Joshua, M. T. (2010). Examination malpractice: The monster in our midst. Paper presented at Intervention workshop for Teachers of English Language. Mathematics and Science subjects in Akwa Ibom State held in September. November.

Maheka, G. (2015). Nature and causes of examination malpractices in selected secondary schools in Kitwe District, Zambia. Lusaka, Zambia: The University of Zambia

Makaula, F. B. (2018). Perceived causes and methods of examination malpractice in the Malawian education system: A case study of secondary schools in the South East Education Division (SEED). Journal of Education and practice, 6 (20), 1-7.

Mutinda, G. (2017). Factors influencing pupils’ involvement in examination malpractices in public primary schools. Journal of Education and practice, 6 (20), 1-10.

Nyamwange, C., Ondima, P., & Onderi, P. O. (2013). Factors influencing examination cheating among secondary school students: A case of Masaba South District of Kisii County, Kenya. Elixir Psychology, 56, 13519-13524.

Nyandwi, M. D. (2017). Determinants of poor academic performance of secondary school students in Sumbawanga District. Tanzania. Unpublished thesis.

Obo, F. E. (2008). Education stakeholders’ attitudes towards examination malpractice and their preferred intervention strategies in Cross River State secondary schools’ system, Nigeria. Unpublished PhD Dissertation). University of Calabar, Cross River State.

Olatoye, R. A. (2006). Checking the menace of examination malpractice: A call for more teaching and learning in schools. Retrieved October 15, 2010, from http://www.naere.org/journal/volums,/nco.1.

Omonijo, D. O. (2010). Parental influence onwards in an escalation of examination misconduct in Nigeria. European Journal of Social Sciences, 19(2), 297-309.

Onyechere, I. (2008). Examination fraud. Retrieved June 20, 2011, from http://www.egoboosterbooks.files.wordpress.com.

Otoo, A. (2018). Students’ perception of causes of examination malpractices in Junior High Schools in Gomoa West, Central Region. Unpublished manuscript

Petters, J. S., & Okon, O. (2014). Students’ perception of causes and effects of examination malpractice in the Nigerian educational system: The way forward for quality education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 114, 125 – 129.

Saraj, A. (2006). Examinations in Pakistan. Lahore, Pakistan: Lahore Press.

Suleman, Q., Gul, R., Ambrin, S., & Kamran, F. (2015). Factors contributing to examination malpractices at secondary school level in Kohat Division, Pakistan. Journal of Education and Learning, 9(2), 165-182.

Yusuf, F. A., Olufunke, Y. R., & Bamgbose, O. R. (2015). Factors responsible for examination malpractices as expressed by undergraduates of Osun State University, Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(33), 75-80.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v8i11.3982


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Ben Adzrolo, Kenneth Asamoah-Gyimah, Andrews Cobbinah, Ruth Annan-Brew

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).