Faramarz Samifanni, Rose Leslie R. Gumanit


Intercultural Communication Competence is essential in creating healthy relations and prevent conflict across numerous cultures. It also emphasizes the essence of accurate and proper information transmission among people. This study aimed to analyze existing literature and derive the perfect formula for learners to develop their Intercultural Communication Competence. A theory on Intercultural Communication Competence was generated using the deductive axiomatic approach. After the analysis and synthesis of related literature and studies, twelve axioms were formulated. From there, four propositions were identified: (1) Intercultural Communication Competence entails cultural actualization; (2) Intercultural Communication Competence calls for a comprehensive curriculum and assessment; (3) Digitalization boosts Intercultural Communication Competence; (4) Upskilled instructors are confident in refining learners’ Intercultural Communication Competence. With these propositions, the Interdependent Theory of Intercultural Communication Competence was generated. This theory highlights the importance of the interdependence among cultural actualization, comprehensive curriculum, digitalization, and upskilled instructors in realizing the full potential of Intercultural Communication Competence of learners. 


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


culture, language learning, language teaching, intercultural communication competence

Full Text:



Abdulrahman, T., Usu, N. R., & Tanipu, Z. (2016). Teachers' Perspectives on the Integration of Culture and EFL. Journal of ELT Research, 180-193. Retrieved from

Akdere, M., Acheson, K., & Jiang, Y. (2021). An examination of the effectiveness of virtual reality technology for intercultural competence development. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 82, 109-120.

Aksyonova, E. Y., & Akhtambaev, R. (2014). Literary Translation Learning as an Aspect of Intercultural Communication. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 154(28), 333-339.

Al-Araki, M. (2015). Models of Intercultural Communication: Identities, Styles of Acculturation, and Premises for Enjoying the Company of One Another-Empirical Data from the Public Sector in Norway. Sage Open.

Alexander, A. (2008). Essays on pedagogy. London: Routledge.

Ali, S., Kazemian, B., & Mahar, I. (2015). The Importance of Culture in Second and Foreign Language Learning. Dinamika Ilmu, 15(1), 9.

Andryukhina, L. M., Fadeeva, N. Y., & Negri, G. D. (2017). Development Of Ecological Culture of Students in The Process of Intercultural Communication in Foreign Language. Obrazovanie i Nauka, 19(8), 47 - 74.

Arasaratnam, L. (2006). Further testing of a new model of intercultural communication competence. Communication Research Reports, 23, 93 - 99.

Arasaratnam, L. (2014). Ten Years of Research in Intercultural Communication Competence (2003 - 2013): A Retrospective. Journal of Intercultural Communication. Retrieved from

Arasaratnam, L. A., & Banerjee, S. C. (2011). Sensation seeking and intercultural communication competence: A model test. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35, 226-233.

Arasaratnam, L. A., & Doerfel, M. L. (2005). Intercultural communication competence: Identifying key components from multicultural perspectives. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(2), 137-163.

Arasaratnam, L. A., Banerjee, S. C., & Dembek, K. (2010). Sensation seeking and the integrated model of intercultural communication competence. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 39, 69-79.

Arizpe, E., Bagelman, C., Devlin, A., Farrell, M., & McAdam, J. (2014). Visualizing intercultural literacy: Engaging critically with diversity and migration in the classroom through an image-based approach. Language and Intercultural Communication, 14(3), 304-321.

Atay, D., Kurt, G., Camhbel, Z., Kas, h. O., & Ersin, P. (2009). The role of intercultural competence in foreign language teaching. Inonu University Journal of the Faculty of Education, Special Issue, 10(3), 123-135.

Badrkoohi, A. (2018). The relationship between demotivation and intercultural communicative competence. Cogent Education, 5(1).

Bagui, H., & Adder, F. Z. (2020). Promoting Students' Intercultural Communicative Competence through English Literary Texts: Students' Attitudes and Teachers' Challenges. Arab World English Journal, 11(2), 85 - 93.

Baker, W. (2012). From cultural awareness to intercultural awareness: Culture in ELT. ELT Journal, 66(1), 62-70.

Baker, W. (2015). Culture and Identity through English as a lingua franca: Rethinking concepts and goals in intercultural communication. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

Bakhtin, M. (1981). The dialogic imagination: Four essays. In M. H. Emerson. University of Texas Press, Austin.

Barnett, G. L. (2002). Issues in Intercultural Communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Bayne, T. (2018). On the axiomatic foundations of the integrated information theory of consciousness. Neurosci Conscious., 1, niy007.

Behrnd, V., & Porzelt, S. (2012). Intercultural competence and training outcomes of students with experiences abroad. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(2), 213-223.

Bennett, A., & Royle, N. (2016). An introduction to literature, criticism and theory. Routledge.

Bingzhuan, P. (2018). Study on Cultivation of Intercultural Communication Competence of College English Based on Modern Information Technology. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 13(9), 29 - 40.

Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural competence. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Byram, M. (2009). Intercultural competence in Foreign Languages: The intercultural speaker and the pedagogy of foreign language education. In D. D. (Ed.), The Sage handbook of intercultural competence (pp. 321-332). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Byram, M., Gribkova, B., & Starkey, H. (2002). Developing the intercultural dimension in language teaching: A practical introduction for teachers. Retrieved from

Byram, M., Holmes, P., & Savvides, N. (2013). Intercultural communicative competence in foreign language education: questions of theory, practice and research. Language learning Journal, 41(3), 251-253.

Candel-Mora, M. Á. (2015). Attitudes towards Intercultural Communicative Competence of English for Specific Purposes Students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 178, 26-31.

Cetinavci, U. R. (2012). Intercultural Communicative Competence in ELT. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Science, 46, 3445-3449.

Corbett, J. (2003). An Intercultural Approach to English language teaching. Clevedon: Intercultural Matters.

Deardorff, D. (2006). Identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization. Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(3), 241-266.

Delanoy, W. (2008). Dialogic communicative competence and language learning. In H. Winter, Future perspectives for English language teaching., (pp. 173-188).

DevísArbona, A., & Chireac, S.M. (2015). Romanian Folk Literature in Our Classes: A Proposal for the Development of Intercultural Competence. 178, 60-65.

Duncan, S., & Paran, A. (2018). Negotiating the challenges of reading literature: Teachers reporting on their practice J. Bland (Ed.). In Using literature in English language education: Challenging reading for 8-18 year olds (pp. 243-259). London: Bloomsbury.

Euwema, M. C., & Van Emmerik, I. H. (2007). Intercultural competencies and conglomerated conflict behaviors in intercultural conflicts. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 31, 427-441.

Fang, F. (2011). Intercultural cultures in the framework of World Englishes: What should EFL teachers do? The Journal of Asia TEFL, 111-137.

Fang, F. (2017). World Englishes or English as a lingua franca: Where does English in China stand? English Today, 33(1), 19-24.

Fantini, A. E. (2009). Assessing intercultural competence: Issues and tools. In D. K. Deardorff, The SAGE handbook of intercultural competence (pp. 456- 476). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Fong, C. S., & De Witt, D. (2019). Developing Intercultural communicative competence: Formative assessment tools for Mandarin as a foreign language. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 16(2), 97-123.

Francis, B., & Jean-François, B. (2010). Teaching French as a Second Language to Chinese students: Instructional staff adaptation and intercultural competence development. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34(6), 561-570.

Fungchomchoei, S., & Kardkarnklai, U.-m. (2016). Exploring the Intercultural Competence of Thai Secondary Education Teachers and its Implications in English Language Teaching. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 236, 240-247.

Galante, A. (2015). Intercultural communicative competence in English language teaching: towards validation of student identity. Brazilian English Language Teaching Journal, 6(1), 29 - 39.

George, A. L. (2019). Case studies and theory development: The method of structured, focused comparison. A pioneer in political and social sciences (pp. 191-214). Cham: Springer.

Ghanem, C. (2017). Teaching Intercultural Communicative Competence: The Perspective of Foreign Language Graduate Student Instructors. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 11(2).

Giles, H. (2008). Communication accommodation theory. In L. A. (Eds.), Engaging theories in interpersonal communication: Multiple perspectives (pp. 161-173). Sage Publications, Inc.

Giles, H., & Ogay, T. (2007). Communication Accommodation Theory. In B. Whaley, & W. S. (Eds.). Mahwah: NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Retrieved from

Gilgun, J. (2009). Deductive qualitative analysis and grounded theory: Sensitizing concepts and hypothesis-testing. In The SAGE handbook of current developments in grounded theory (pp. 107-122). SAGE.

Graddol, D. (2006). English Next. Why global English may mean the end of 'English as a foreign language'. London: British.

Griffith, R. L., Wolfeld, L., Armon, B. K., Rios, J., & Liu, O. L. (2016). Assessing Intercultural Competence in Higher Education: Existing Research and Future Directions. Wiley Online Library.

Gudykunst, W. B. (1995). Anxiety/uncertainty management (AUM) theory: Current status. In R. L. Wiseman, Intercultural communication theory (pp. 8-58). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hall, E. (1959). The Silent Language. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc.

Hamilton, J., & Woodward-Kron, R. (2010). Developing cultural awareness and intercultural communication through multimedia: A case study from medicine and the health sciences. System, 38(4), 560-568.

Havril, A. K. (2015). Improving Intercultural Competence of Female University Students in EFL within Saudi Arabia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 192(24), 554-566.

He, Y., Lundgren, K., & Pynes, P. (2017). Impact of short-term study abroad program: Inservice teachers' development of intercultural competence and pedagogical beliefs. Teaching and Teacher Education, 66, 147-157.

Heggernes, S. L. (2021). A critical review of the role of texts in fostering Intercultural Communicative competence in the English Language classroom. Educational Research Review, 33, 100390.

Helm, F. (2009). Language and culture in an online context: What can learner diaries tell us about intercultural competence? Language & Intercultural Communication, 9, 91-104.

Henningsen, D. D., & Henningsen, M. L. (2018). Does brainstorming promote cohesiveness? How the rules of brainstorming mirror symbolic convergence. Communication Reports, 31(2), 103-114.

Herfst, S. L., Van Oudenhoven, J. P., & Timmerman, M. E. (2008). Intercultural effectiveness training in three Western immigrant countries: A cross-cultural evaluation of critical incidents. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32, 67-80.

Hirotani, M., & Fujii, K. (2019). Learning proverbs through telecollaboration with Japanese native speakers: facilitating L2 learners' intercultural communicative competence. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education, 4(1), 1 - 22.

Hismanoglu, M. (2011). An investigation of ELT students' intercultural communicative competence in relation to linguistic proficiency, overseas experience and formal instruction. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(6), 805-817.

Holmes, P., & O'Neill, G. (2012). Developing and evaluating intercultural competence: Ethnographies of intercultural encounters. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(5), 707-718.

Hřebačková, T. (2019). Teaching intercultural communicative competence through virtual exchange. Training, Language and Culture, 3(4), 8 - 17.

Ilie, O.-A. (2019). The Intercultural Competence. Developing Effective Intercultural Communication Skills. International Conference Knowledge-Based Organization, (pp. 264-268). Sibiu, Romania.

Imahori, T., & Lanigan, M. (1989). Relational model of intercultural communication competence. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 13(3), 269-286.

Jenkins, J. (2007). English as a lingua franca: Attitude and Identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jenkins, J. (2014). English as a lingua franca in the international university. The politics of academic English language policy. Abingdon, New York: Routledge.

Jin, T. (2014). Getting to know you: The development of intercultural competence as an essential element in learning Mandarin. London Review of Education, 20-33.

Kachru, B. (1992). The other tongue: English across cultures. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Karabinara, S., & Guler, C. Y. (2013). A Review of Intercultural Competence from Language Teachers' Perspective. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 1316-1328.

Kim, Y. Y. (2017). Integrative Communication Theory of Cross‐Cultural Adaptation. Intercultural Communication Core Theories, Issues, and Concepts.

Kivunja, C. (2018). Distinguishing between theory, theoretical framework, and conceptual framework: A systematic review of lessons from the field. International Journal of Higher Education, 7(6), 44-53.

Kohonen, V., Jaatinen, R., Kaikkonen, P., & Lethovaara, J. (2017). Experiential learning in foreign language education. Abingdon: Routledge.

Köroğlu, Z. Ç. (2016). Measuring English Language Teacher Candidates' Intercultural Sensitivity: A Key Element to Foster Intercultural Communicative Competence. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching, 3(1), 43 - 52. doi:

Kuplevatskaya, L. (2019). Teacher's professional linguo-communicative competence in the context of intercultural communication. Teaching Languages at Higher Institutions, Ne 34.

Ledwith, S., & Seymour, D. (2001). Home and away: Preparing students for multicultural management. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12(8), 1292-1312.

Lee, L., & Markey, A. (2014). A study of learners' perceptions of online intercultural exchange through Web 2.0 technologies. ReCALL, 281-297.

Lehrer, K. (2018). Theory of knowledge. Routledge.

Liton, H. A. (2016). Adopting Intercultural Communication Issue in Teaching English. Lingua Cultura, 10(1), 1 - 6.

Little, D., Devitt, S., & Singleton, D. (1989). Learning foreign languages from authentic texts Theory and practice. Dublin: Authentik Language Learning Resources Ltd.

Littleton, K., & Mercer, N. (2013). Interthinking: Putting talk to work. London: Routledge.

Liu, J. (2009). Students' Construal of Intercultural Communication Competence and Intercultural Communication Teaching. Intercultural Communication Studies, 88-102.

Liu, J., & Fang, F. (. (2017). Perceptions, awareness and perceived effects of home culture on intercultural communication: Perspectives of university students in China. System, 67, 25-37.

Makhmudov, K. (2020). Ways of Forming Intercultural Communication in Foreign Language Teaching. Pedagogy, 1(4), 84 - 89.

Marciszewski, W. (1981). Deductive Method. In Dictionary of Logic as Applied in the Study of Language. Dordrecht: Springer.

Matos, A. (2011). Literary texts and intercultural learning: Exploring new directions. Bern: Peter Lang AG: Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften, Bern.

Matveev, A. V. (2004). Describing intercultural communication competence: In-depth interviews with American and Russian managers. Qualitative Research Reports in Communication, V, 55-62.

McCloskey, E. (2012). Global Teachers: A Model for Building Teachers' Intercultural Competence Online. Comunicar, 19(38), 41-49.

Mintzberg, H. (2017). Developing theory about the development of theory. In Handbook of Middle Management Strategy Process Research. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Mitchell, P. J., Pardinho, L. A., Yermakova-Aguiar, N. N., & Meshkov, L. V. (2015). Language Learning and Intercultural Communicative Competence: An Action Research Case Study of Learners of Portuguese. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Science, 200, 307-312.

Nesdale, D., De Vries Robbe, M., & Van Oudenhoven, J. P. (2012). Intercultural effectiveness, authoritarianism, and ethnic prejudice. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42, 1173-1191.

Nguyen, H.-T. T. (2021). Project-Based Assessment in Teaching Intercultural Communication Competence for Foreign Language Students in Higher Education: A Case Study. European Journal of Educational Research, 933 - 944.

Nieto, S. (2010). Language, culture, and teaching: Critical perspectives. Abingdon: Routledge.

Novikov, P. (2011). Axiomatic method. Retrieved from Encyclopedia of Mathematics:

O'Toole, C. (2018). Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) Intercultural Competence: A Phenomenological Exploration of Trainees' Experiences within Global Virtual Training Environments. Irish Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 12 - 29.

Padua, R. (2012). Training presentation from Cebu Normal University. Teaching theory development. Cebu City, Philippines.

Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Paulus, P. B., & Kenworthy, J. B. (2019). Handbook of Group Creativity: Innovation Through Collaboration.

Peng, R.-Z., & Wu, W.-P. (2016). Measuring intercultural contact and its effects on intercultural competence: A structural equation modelling approach. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 53, 16-27.

Popescu, T., & Iordachescu, G.-D. (2015). Raising Students' Intercultural Competence through the Process of Language Learning. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 197, 2315-2319.

Prasad, N., Reddy, N., & Nizami, N. (2018). Block-1 Research Methodology: Issues and Perspectives.

Pryshlіak, O., Polishchuk, V., & Lupak, N. (2020). Impact of Intercultural Educational Space on the Formation of Intercultural Competence of Future Teachers at a Pedagogical Higher Education Institution. Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia, 45, 42-59.

Reid, E. (2015). Techniques Developing Intercultural Communicative Competences in English Language Lessons. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 186, 939-943.

Romanov, Y. A., & Snegurova, T. A. (2017). Intercultural Communication and Teaching Russian to International Students at Language Summer Courses. Integraciâ Obrazovaniâ, 31(3), 371 - 384.

Sapir, E. (1921). Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech. New York: Harcourt, Brace &Co.

Secru, L., Bandura, E., & Castro, P. (2005). Foreign language teachers and intercultural competence: An international investigation. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Seeber, I., de Vreede, G.-J., Maier, R., & Weber, B. (2017). Beyond Brainstorming: Exploring Convergence in Teams. Journal of Management Information Systems, 34(4), 939-969.

Seidhofer, B. (2011). Understanding English as a lingua franca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Selden, R. (2016). Practising theory and reading literature: an introduction. Routledge.

Shadiev, R. (2020). A review of research on intercultural learning supported by technology. Educational Research Review, 31, 100338.

Sobkowiak, P. (2019). The impact of studying abroad on students' intercultural competence: An interview study. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 9(4), 681-710.

Stergiou, D. P., & Airey, D. (2018). Understandings of Tourism Theory. Tourism Review.

Suchankova, H. (2014). Developing Intercultural Competences during the Language Tuition. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 1439-1443.

Szerszeń, P., & Romanowski, P. (2018). Do contemporary e-learning solutions support the development of intercultural competence? Insights from European projects. Journal of Pedagogical Research, 2(3), 192 - 202.

Taguchi, N., & Roever, C. (2017). Second Language Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University.

Thomé-Williams, A. C. (2016). Developing Intercultural Communicative Competence in Portuguese through Skype and Facebook. Intercultural Communication Studies, XXV(I). Retrieved from

Ting-Toomey, S. (1988). Intercultural conflict styles: A face-negotiation theory. In Y. Y. (Eds.), Theories in intercultural communication (pp. 213-235). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Tran, T., & Duong, T. (2018). The effectiveness of the intercultural language communicative teaching model for EFL learners. Asian. Journal Second. Foreign. Lang. Educ., 3(6).

Uso-Juan, E., & Martinez-Flor, A. (2008). Teaching intercultural communicative competence through the Four Skills. Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses, 21, 157-170.

Vo, Q. P. (2017). Rethinking Intercultural Communication Competence in English Language Teaching: A Gap Between Lecturers' Perspectives and Practices in A Southeast Asian Tertiary Context. i-manager's Journal on English Language Teaching, 7(1), 20-29.

Vrikki, M., Wheatley, L., Howe, C., Hennessey, S., & Mercer, N. (2019). Dialogic practices in primary school classrooms. Language and Education, 33(1), 1-19.

Waal, M. F., Born, M. P., Brinkmann, U., & Frasch, J. J. (2020). Third Culture Kids, their diversity beliefs and their intercultural competences. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 177-190.

Wen, Q. (2016). Teaching culture(s) in English as a lingua franca in Asia: Dilemma and Solution. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, 5(1), 155-177.

Whorf, B. (1956). Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Ed. John B. Carroll. Cambridge, Mass: Technology Press of Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Widdowson, H. (1994). The ownership of English. TESOL Quarterly, 28(2), 377-389.

Widodo, H., Wood, A., & Gupta, D. (2017). Asian language classrooms: Where theory and practice meet. Abingbon: Routledge.

Wiseman, R. (2002). Intercultural communication competence. In &. B. Gudykunst, Handbook of international and intercultural communication (2nd ed) (pp. 207-224). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Yashima, T. (2012). The effects of international volunteer work experiences on intercultural competence of Japanese youth. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34, 268-282.

Yeke, S., & FatihSemerciöz. (2016). Relationships Between Personality Traits, Cultural Intelligence and Intercultural Communication Competence. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 265, 313-319.

Yuges, O. (2020). Enhancing the development of intercultural communicative competence in business and study environments. Training, Language and Culture, 4(1), 44 - 54.

Zhang, H. (2012). Collaborative learning as a pedagogical tool to develop intercultural competence in a multicultural class. China Media Research, 8(2), 107-111

Zhang, Y., Peng, L., Shen, J., Zhinan, Z., & Tao, F. (2019). Development of a Process for Perceptual Index Establishment based on Axiomatic Design. In MATEC Web of Conferences, 301, p. 00020.

Терещук, Д. (2015). Developing intercultural communication competence through intercultural communication. Serìâ: pedagogìka, 0(2), 62-66.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Faramarz Samifanni, Rose Leslie R. Gumanit

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).