IMPLEMENTATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION OBJECTIVES TOWARDS THE ATTAINMENT OF CAMEROON’S VISION 2035 / MISE EN ŒUVRE DES OBJECTIFS DE L’ENSEIGNEMENT SUPÉRIEUR POUR LA RÉALISATION DE LA VISION 2035 DU CAMEROUN

Awu Isaac Oben

Abstract


This study aimed at investigating the extent to which the Implementation of Higher Education Objectives (HEO) predicts the attainment of Cameroon’s Vision 2035. Specifically, the study was: (1) To find out whether the strengthening of gender equality is effectively ensuring the attainment of Cameroon's Vision 2035 with respect to poverty alleviation and national unity, and consolidation of democracy. (2) To find out whether the training of trainers and researchers is effectively ensuring the attainment of Cameroon's Vision 2035 with respect to poverty alleviation and national unity and consolidation of democracy. The study made use of two hypotheses, which were either accepted or rejected after analysis. The quantitative and qualitative (mixt method) design was used for this study. The population of the study consisted of all the final year students (potential graduates: B.Sc, B.Ed, M.A, M.Sc, M.Ed, Ph.D., and HND, etc.) from 14 Higher Institutes of Learning (HIL) in the South West Region of Cameroon. The sample consisted of 370 students chosen at random. 24 teachers were also interviewed. A questionnaire and an interview guide were used for data collection. The questionnaire was validated by 30 students who did not constitute part of the sample. Quantitative data were analyzed using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (statistical tool). Qualitative data were analyzed by using content analysis. The findings revealed that; the strengthening of gender equality is high hence guarantees the attainment of Cameroon's Vision 2035 with respect to poverty alleviation, and national unity, and consolidation of democracy. Results revealed that factors in favor of gender equality include; Policies adjustment leading to inclusive education, equity and increase in gender access, relatively equal opportunities in Science Departments, a relative change in teachers’ perception towards women education, the relative decrease in favoritism and increase in meritocracy rate in HE classrooms, increase in female leaders, teachers, and researcher to influence decision making leading to a relative balance in the inclusion of male and female students in major school projects, activities and decisions. On the contrary, results revealed that the mean for the training of trainers and researchers were found low as such does not guarantee the attainment of Cameroon's Vision 2035 with respect to poverty alleviation, and national unity and consolidation of democracy. Results revealed that, factors influencing the low level of Training of Trainers and Researchers in HE include; generally low-quality control and monitoring in HE, inadequate financial, material and human resources to effectively influence the training of trainers and researcher, poor research funding and management, low motivation of staff and students to attend seminars, ineffective research supervision, and duration for learners to gain required skills, poor feedback quality from research supervisors, contribute to the low level of Training of Trainers and Researchers in HE. The researcher concluded that the Implementation of HEO has a direct relationship with the attainment of Cameroon’s Vision 2035 yet some of the objectives are not effectively implemented. The better the implementation of HEO, the more HE can guarantee the attainment of Vision 2035. Some recommendations and suggestions for further study were made.

Cette étude visait à déterminer jusqu’où la mise en œuvre des objectifs de l’enseignement supérieur prévoit la réalisation de la Vision 2035 du Cameroun. Plus précisément, il s’agissait de: (1) déterminer si le renforcement de l’égalité des sexes garantit véritablement la réalisation de la Vision 2035 du Cameroun concernant la réduction de la pauvreté, l’unité nationale et la consolidation de la démocratie. (2) Déterminer si la formation des formateurs et celle des chercheurs garantissent véritablement la réalisation de la Vision 2035 du Cameroun en matière de lutte contre la pauvreté, d’unité nationale et de consolidation de la démocratie. L’étude a fait appel à deux hypothèses, acceptées ou rejetées après analyse. Cette étude a fait recours à une combinaison de méthodes quantitatives et qualitatives (approche mixte). La population de l’étude était composée de tous les étudiants de dernière année (diplômés potentiels: licences, masters, doctorats, BTS , etc.) de 14 instituts d’enseignement supérieur basés dans la région Sud-Ouest du Cameroun. L’échantillon était composé de 370 étudiants choisis au hasard. 24 enseignants ont également été interviewés. Un questionnaire et un guide d’interview ont été utilisés pour la collecte des données. Le questionnaire a été validé par 30 étudiants qui ne faisaient pas partie de l’échantillon. Les données quantitatives ont été analysées à l’aide du coefficient de corrélation de Pearson (outil statistique). Les données qualitatives ont été analysées en utilisant l’analyse du contenu. Les résultats ont révélé que: le renforcement de l’égalité des sexes est élevé, ce qui garantit la réalisation de la Vision 2035 du Cameroun concernant la réduction de la pauvreté, l’unité nationale et la consolidation de la démocratie. Les résultats ont révélé que les facteurs suivants favorisent l’égalité des sexes: l’ajustement des politiques conduisant à une éducation inclusive ; l’équité et l’amélioration de l’accès des hommes et des femmes à l’égalité de chances dans les facultés de science ; le changement de la perception qu’ont les enseignants à l’égard de l’éducation des femmes ; la réduction du favoritisme et l’augmentation du taux de méritocratie en enseignement supérieur ; l’inclusion des étudiants et étudiantes dans les grands projets, les activités et les décisions académiques. Par contre, les résultats ont révélé que les moyens octroyés à la formation des formateurs et des chercheurs étaient faibles car ceux-ci ne garantissent pas la réalisation de la Vision 2035 du Cameroun en ce qui concerne la lutte contre la pauvreté, l’unité nationale et de consolidation de la démocratie. Les résultats ont révélé que les facteurs suivants influencent le faible niveau de formation des formateurs et des chercheurs dans l’enseignement supérieur: le contrôle et le suivi dans l’enseignement supérieur qui généralement de mauvaise qualité ; les ressources financières, matérielles et humaines insuffisantes pour impacter efficacement la formation des formateurs et des chercheurs ; l’insuffisance du financement et de la gestion de la recherche ; la faible motivation du personnel et des étudiants à participer à des séminaires. L’inefficacité de la direction des recherches, la durée d’acquisition des techiniques nécessaires et les feedbacks de mausaise qualité venant des directeurs de recherche contribuent eux aussi, au faible niveau de la formation des formateurs et des chercheurs dans l’enseignement supérieur. Le chercheur a conclu que la mise en œuvre des objectifs de l’enseignement supérieur a un lien direct avec la réalisation de la Vision 2035 du Cameroun, cependant certains de ces objectifs ne sont pas véritablement mis en œuvre. Plus la mise en œuvre des objectifs de l’enseignement supérieur est effective, plus elle garantit la réalisation de la Vision 2035. Quelques recommandations et suggestions ont été faites en vue d’une étude plus approfondie.

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higher education objectives; education policy; implementation, gender equality; training of trainers; training of researchers; Cameroon’s Vision 2035 / clés: objectifs de l’enseignement supérieur; politique d’ensignement; mise en œuvre ; egalité des sexe

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v8i8.3864

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