A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BRAZIL, FINLAND AND VIETNAM: SOFT SKILLS FOR ADULT EDUCATORS

Ruhalahti Sanna, Frangou Satu-Maarit, Daniela Sanfelice, Ho Thi Hanh Tien, Vasari Pekka

Abstract


This study contributes a unique standpoint with its comparative case analysis concerning educators' soft skills. The topic is compared among three countries: Brazil, Finland and Vietnam, representing three continents with different social, economic and cultural aspects. This comparative quantitative case study aimed to examine the different attitudes and soft skills of adult educators (n = 355) through an online survey in Brazil, Finland and Vietnam. The focus was on identifying the most important soft skills from the adult educators’ points of view and the differences concerning those skills among the three countries. The study offers practical recommendations for teachers and teacher education development by which to further develop educators’ skills, in response to skill preparation for students in the fast-changing study and working environment demands. This study concluded that Brazil, Finland and Vietnam differ considerably in their views on soft skills as based on the present analysis. The participants from Finland regarded the intrapersonal skills as most important, whereas, for the respondents from Brazil and Vietnam, the socioemotional skills were regarded as most important. Furthermore, participants from Brazil and Finland regarded the socioemotional skills statistically significantly more important than did the respondents from Vietnam. At the same time, the participants from Brazil regarded the interpersonal skills statistically significantly more important than did the respondents from Vietnam, but between Finland and Vietnam statistical difference was apparent only on some components of the interpersonal skills. There is still a need for further research regarding teachers and educators´ soft skills and the reasons behind the different views of their importance.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


Keywords


adult educator, comparative analysis, interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills socioemotional skills, soft skills

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aarnio, H. (1999). Dialogia etsimässä: Opettajaopiskelijoiden dialogin kehittyminen tieto- ja viestintäteknistä ympäristöä varten [In search of dialogue: Developing dialogue for communication and information technological environment] (Doctoral dissertation). Tampere, Finland: University of Tampere.

Aarnio, H. (2012). Dialogical methods.

http://www3.hamk.fi/dialogi/diale/index_eng.html

Alarcão, I. (2007). Contributos da supervisão pedagógica do conhecimento profissional dos professors [Contributions of pedagogical supervision of the professional knowledge of teachers] In I. Alarcão (Ed.) Professores reflexivos em uma escola reflexive (pp. 60–75). São Paulo, Brazil: Cortez.

Almeida, K. C. C., Oliveira, M. L. M. C., Ferreira, D. F., & Batista, E. C. (2017). Habilidades sociais de professores de uma escola estadual de ensino fundamental do interior de Rondônia [Social skills of teachers at a state elementary school in the interior of Rondonia State, North Brazil]. Unoesc & Ciência, 8(1), pp. 71–80.

Angeles, M. P. (2012). Teaching efficacy, interpersonal, intrapersonal skills and teaching performance in the tertiary school. International Journal of Social Sciences, 2(1).

Anh, Q. (2019, August 19). Đào tạo kỹ năng mềm cho cán bộ, giáo viên ngành giáo dục nghề nghiệp [Training soft skills for vocational educators]. Available at https://giaoducthoidai.vn/dao-tao-ky-nang-mem-cho-can-bo-giao-vien-nganh-giao-duc-nghe-nghiep-3815758.html

Applied Educational System. Tips for effectively teaching the importance of soft skills. http://blog.aeseducation.com/2015/06/importance-of-soft-skills

Avainta. (2017). Statistical information of teachers. http://www.avainta.fi/tyomarkkinat/tilastot/opetushenkilosto

Cedefob. (2015). Work-based learning in continuing vocational education and training: policies and practices in Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Cedefop research paper v. 49.

Cedefob. (2020). Vocational education and training in Europe, 1995–2035. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. CEDEFOP reference series 114. DOI: 10.2801/7944712020.

Cinque, M. (2016), ‘Lost in translation’. Soft skills development in European countries. Tuning Journal for Higher Education, 3(2), pp. 389–427.

Cintra, A. B., & Del Prette, A. P. (2019). Caraterísticas dos professores-cursistas, Processo e resultados em programa semipresencial de habilidades sociais [Characteristcs of the teachers, process and results in a semi-presencial program of social habilities]. PSICO-USF, 24(4), pp. 711–723.

Dao, V. H. (2014). Quản lý đào tạo theo năng lực thực hiện nghề kỹ thuật xây dựng ở các trường cao đẳng xây dựng [Management competency-based training for construction engineering occupations in construction colleges] (Doctoral dissertation). Hanoi, Vietnam: Vien Khoa hoc Giao duc Viet Nam - The Vietnam Institute of Educational Sciences.

Del Prette, Z. A. P., & Del Prette, A. (1998). Desenvolvimento interpessoal e educação escolar: o enfoque das habilidades sociais [Interpersonal development and scholar education: the social habilities in focus]. Temas em Psicologia, Ribeirão Preto, 6(3), pp. 217–229.

Del Prette, Z. A. P., & Del Prette, A. (2008). Um sistema de categorias de habilidades sociais educativas [A system of categories about social and educational habilities]. Paidéia, Ribeirão Preto, 18(41), pp. 517–530.

Duarte, V. C. (2004). Relações interpessoais: professor e aluno em cena [Interpersonal relations: teacher and student on the scene]. Psicologia Educacional, 19(1), pp. 119–142.

Finnish National Board of Education. (2017). Opettajat ja rehtorit Suomessa 2016. Raportit ja selvitykset 2017:2. [Teachers and principals in Finland 2016. Reports and investigations 2017:2]. https://www.oph.fi/julkaisut/2017/opettajat_ja_rehtorit_suomessa_2016

Fixsen, A., Cranfield, S., & Ridge, D. (2018). Self-care and entrepreneurism: an ethnography of soft skills development for higher education staff. Studies in Continuing Education, 40(2), pp. 181–197.

Hankala, U. (2013). Sosioemotionaalisten taitojen merkitys aikuiskouluttajan työssä. [Importance of adult educators’ socio-emotional skills] (Master thesis), Lifelong Learning and Education, University of Tampere, Finland.

Heckman, J., & Kautz, T. (2012). Hard evidence on soft skills. Labour Economics, 19(4), pp. 451–464.

Ho, R. (2014). Handbook of Univariate and Multivariate Data Analysis with IBM SPSS, Second Edition. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.

Ho, T. H. T., Ho, T. A., & Tran, T. Q. N. (2020). An Analysis on the Pedagogy and Assessment of Transversal Skills in Vietnamese Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET). International Journal of Vocational Education and Training Research, 6(1), pp. 1–10.

INEP (2017). Perfil do Professor da Educação Básica [Teachers profile of basic education]. Available at http://portal.inep.gov.br/informacao-da-publicacao/-/asset_publisher/6JYIsGMAMkW1/document/id/1473981.2017.

Institute for Human Resources Training and Development. (2020). Training activities. (2020). http://itd.org.vn/en/index.php

Jääskelä, P., Nykänen, S., & Tynjälä, P. (2018). Models for the development of generic skills in Finnish higher education. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 42(1), pp. 130–142.

Jazeel, A. M. (2016). Soft skills for professional teachers: a new perspective in teacher education. Paper presented at the International Conference on Health Indicators for Physical and Cognitive Fitness Education, Alagappa university, India.

Jennings, P. (2011). Promoting teachers’ social and emotional competencies to support performance and reduce burnout. In A. Cohan and A. Honigsfeld (Eds.) Breaking the mold of preservice and inservice teacher education: Innovative and successful practices for the 21st century Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education, pp. 133–143.

Junrat, S., Jenphop, C., Suravee, R., & Kanokorn, S. (2014). Soft skills for university library staff in Thailand. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 112, pp. 1027–1032.

Kamin, M. (2013). The soft skills revolution: A guide for connecting with compassion for trainers, teams, and leaders. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.

Kazimi, A. B., Suhag, A. K., Ahmed, S. T., Hussain, M., & Larik, R. S. A. (2018). Perception and practices of integrating soft skills and positivity training in teacher education program. International Journal of Current Research, 10(11), pp. 75039–75044.

Kechagias, K. (2011). Teaching and assessing soft skills. http://research.education.nmsu.edu/files/2014/01/396_MASS-wp4-final-report-part-1.pdf

Mahlamäki-Kultanen, S., Happo, I., & Perunka, S. (2019). Ammatillinen opettajankoulutus osaamisen viitekehysten valossa [Framing the Finnish vocational teacher education]. UAS Journal 1(2019). https://uasjournal.fi/1-2019/ammatillinen-opettajankoulutus-osaamisen-viitekehys/

Mai, L. Q. T. (2018). Skill gap from employers’ evaluation: A case of VNU graduates. VNU Journal of Science: Education Research, 34(2), pp. 1–13.

Mathews, S. M., & Reddy, J. K. (2018). Soft skills of secondary level teachers. International Journal of Research, 7(10), pp. 374–378.

Meireles, R. M. (2009). As relações entre as medidas de habilidades sociais do professor do ensino fundamental II e seu desempenho social em sala de aula [Relationships between social abilities measurements of teachers of basic school II and their social performance in the classroom]. Visões, 1(6), pp. 01–28.

Ngang, T. K., & Chan, T. C. (2015). The importance of ethics, morals and professional skills of novice teachers. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 205, pp. 8–12.

Ngang, T. K., Hashim, N. H., & Yunus, M. (2015). Novice teacher perceptions of the soft skills needed in today’s workplace. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 177, pp. 284–288.

Nguyen, H. (2018, March 28). Vietnam unprepared for imminent 4th Industrial Revolution: experts. https://e.vnexpress.net/news/business/vietnam-unprepared-for-imminent-4th-industrial-revolution-experts-3728896.html

OECD. (2019). TALIS 2018 Results (Volume I): Teachers and school leaders as lifelong learners. Paris, France: OECD Publishing.

Pachauri, D., & Aruna, Y. (2014). Importance of soft skills in teacher education programme. International Journal of Educational Research and Technology, 5(1), pp. 22–25.

Padhi, P. (2014). Soft skills: Education beyond academics. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(5), pp. 1–3.

Parry, J., & Hayden, M. (2015). Skills Development: A Review with Reference to Southeast Asia. Journal of International and Comparative Education,4(2), 67-78.

Pasqualotto, R., & Löhr, S. (2015). Habilidades sociais e resiliência em futuros professors [Social abilities and resilience in future teachers]. Psicologia Argumento, 33(80), 310–320.

Pettersson, F. (2018). Digitally Competent School Organizations – Developing Supportive Organizational Infrastructures. International Journal of Media, Technology & Lifelong Learning, 14(2), 132–143.

Pham, H. (2013, July 13). Graduate unemployment and ‘over-education’ rising. University Word News. https://www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20130711163808113

Reis, V. T. C., Prata, M. A. R., & Soares, A. B. (2012). Habilidades sociais e afetividade no contexto escolar: Perspectivas envolvendo professores e ensino-aprendizagem [Social abilities and affection in the scholar context: Perspectives involving teachers and teaching-learning]. Psicologia Argumento, 30(69), pp. 347–357.

Reyes Manrique, M. E. (2016). Relación entre Habilidades Sociales y Desempeño Docente desde la percepción de estudiantes adultos de universidad privada en Lima, Perú [Relationship between Social Skills and Teaching Performance from the perception of adult students in a private university in Lima, Peru]. Revista Digital de Investigación en Docencia Universitaria, 10(2), 17-30. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19083/ridu.10.465

Ricchiardi, P., & Emanuel, F. (2018). Soft skill assessment in higher education. Journal of Educational, Cultural and Psychological Studies, 18, pp. 21–54.

Rongrraung, S., Somprach, K., Khanthap, J., & Sitthisomjin, J. (2015). Soft skills for private basic education schools in Thailand. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences,112, pp. 956–961.

Ruhalahti, S. (2019). Redesigning a Pedagogical Model for Scaffolding Dialogical, Digital and Deep Learning in Vocational Teacher Education. Acta electronica Universitatis Lapponiensis, 257. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-337-145-3

Ruhalahti, S., Aarnio, H., & Ruokamo, H. (2018). Deep learning evaluation vocational in teacher education: Conducted on the principles of authentic and dialogical collaborative knowledge construction. Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 8(2), pp. 22–47. doi.org//10.3384/njvet.2242-458X.188222

Ryökkynen, S., Pirttimaa, P., & Kontu, E. (2019). Interaction between students and class teachers in vocational education and training: “Safety distance is needed”. Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 9(2), pp. 156¬–174.

Schulz, B. (2008). The importance of soft skills: Education beyond academic knowledge. Journal of Language and Communication, Nawa, 2, pp. 146–155.

Soares, A. B., Naiff, L, A, M., Fonseca, L, B. d, Cardozo, A., & Baldez, M. O. (2009). As habilidades sociais e variáveis sóciodemográficas de professors [The social skills and socio-demographic variables of teachers]. Psicologia: Teoria e Prática, 11(1), pp. 35–49.

SOSTRA. (2018). What are soft skills? https://sostra.eu/about-project/

Tang, K. N. (2018) The importance of soft skills acquisition by teachers in higher education institutions. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 41(1), pp. 2–7.

Tang, K. N., & Tan, C. C. (2015). The importance of ethics, moral and professional skills of novice teachers. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 205, pp. 8–12.

Tang, K. N., Tan, C. C., & Vetriveilmany, U. D. (2015). Critical issues of soft skills development in teaching professional training: Educators’ perspectives. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 205, pp. 128–133.

Tapani, A., & Salonen, A. (2019). Identifying teachers’ competencies in Finnish vocational education. International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training, 6(3), pp. 243–260.

Topal, T., & Uzoglu, M. (2020). Discipline problems faced by science teachers in classroom management and solutions for these problems. European Journal of Education Studies, 7(9). http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v7i9.3219

Tran, L. T., Marginson, S., Do, H., Do, Q., Le, T., Nguyen, N., Vu, T., Pham, T., & Nguyen, H. (2014). Higher education in Vietnam: Flexibility, mobility and practicality in the global knowledge economy. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Tran, N. L. H. (2019). Building soft skills for employability: Challenges and practices in Vietnam. New York, NY: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

Tran, T. T. (2012). Graduate employability: Interpretation versus expectation. In N. Brown, S. M. Jones and A. Adam (Eds.). Research and development in higher education: Connections in higher education. Hobart, Tasmania: HERDSA, pp. 317–325.

Tran, T. T. (2010). Enhancing graduate employability: Challenges facing higher education in Vietnam. Paper presented at the 14th UNESCO-APEID International Conference: Education for human resource development, Bangkok, Thailand.

Tran, T. T. (2013). Limitation on the development of skills in higher education in Vietnam. High Educ, 65, pp. 631–644.

Tran, T. T., Ruhalahti, S., & Korhonen, A-M. (2021). Soft skills in EDU 4.0: Lessons learnt in HUE college. Journal of Technical Education Science, 62, pp. 28–37

Tynjälä, P., Virtanen, A., Klemola, U., Kostiainen, E., & Rasku-Puttonen, H. (2016). Developing social competence and other generic skills in teacher education: applying the model of integrative pedagogy. European Journal of Teacher Education, 39(3), pp. 368–387.

Vänskä, K. (2018). Opettaja kohtaamisosaajana ja merkityksellisyyden avaajana. [The teacher’s role as an awareness expert and an explainer of the meaningfulness behind a learner’s goals.] In A. Raudasoja, A. Norontaus, A. Tapani, & R. Ylitervo (Eds.). Innokkaasti edelläkävijänä! Kohti opetus- ja ohjaushenkilöstön uudistuvia identiteettipositioita.Hämeenlinna, Finland: HAMK, pp. 21–27.

Vieira-Santos, J., Pereira Del Prette, Z. A., & Del Prette, A. (2018). Habilidades sociais educativas: revisão sistemática da produção brasileira [Educational social skills: systematic review of Brazilian production]. Avances en Psicología Latinoamericana, 36(1), pp. 45–63.

Virtanen, A., & Tynjälä, P. (2019). Factors explaining the learning of generic skills: a study of university students’ experiences. Teaching in Higher Education, 24(7), pp. 880–894.

Silva, J. P., Silva, J. P., Wagner, T.F, & Wagner, M. F. (2016). Habilidades sociais em proferssores: Uma revisão de literatura [Social skill teachers: a literature review].

Paper presented at the IMED. X Mostra de Iniciação Científica e Extensão Comunitária e IX Mostra de Pesquisa de Pós-Graduação da IMED. Passo Fundo, Brazil. http://dx.doi.org/10.18256/978-85-99924-85-3

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). SAS for windows workbook for Tabachnick and Fidell using multivariate statistics. Allyn and Bacon.

World Bank. (2015). Vietnam. http://data.worldbank.org/country/Vietnam

Wyler, M. M., & Raiser, J. S. (2014). Habilidades sociais e educação: avanços e possibilidades possibilidades [Social skills and Education: advances and possibilities]. Ágora, 19(2), pp. 40–63.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v8i4.3694

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Ruhalahti Sanna, Frangou Satu-Maarit, Daniela Sanfelice, Ho Thi Hanh Tien, Vasari Pekka

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).