Ağçam Reyhan, Muzaffer Pınar Babanoğlu


Analyzing teacher self-efficacy has been a prominent issue in educational research since late 1970s. Teacher efficacy basically refers to teachers’ beliefs in their abilities to organize and execute courses of action necessary to bring about desired results (Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998). This study attempts to examine self-efficacy beliefs of teachers working at primary state schools in Turkey regarding dimensions such as instruction, adapting instruction to individual needs, motivating students, and maintaining discipline. It specifically aims to reveal whether gender and experience have a significant influence on the teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs. Data obtained from the participants’ responses to the items in the Norwegian Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2010) were analysed using SPSS Version 17.0. Findings of the study suggest that teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs are improved through gaining professional experience, and that female teachers seem to have lower self-efficacy beliefs than their male colleagues with respect to motivating students, keeping discipline in classroom, and coping with challenges. The study concludes with practical implications of the findings, and a few suggestions for further directions. 


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



self-efficacy, experience, gender, teacher


Bandura A, 1994. Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of Human Behavior, 4, 71-81. New York: Academic Press. (Reprinted in H. Friedman (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of Mental Health. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998.

Bandura A, 1997. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: W. H. Freeman & Company.

Berg D A, Smith L F, 2016. Preservice Teacher Self-Efficacy Beliefs: An Opportunity to Generate “Good Research” in the Asia-Pacific Region. In S. Garvis and D. Pendergast (Eds.), Asia-Pacific Perspectives on Teacher Self-Efficacy, 1-17. Sense Publishers.

Doğutaş A, 2016. Self-efficacy Beliefs of Teacher Candidates on Readiness to Teaching Profession at a University in Turkey. Iğdır Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 9: 1-24.

Ghasemboland F, Hashim F B, 2013. Teachers’ Self-efficacy Beliefs and Their English Language Proficiency: A Study of Non-native EFL Teachers in Selected Language Centers. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 103, 890-899.

Gavora P, 2010. Slovak Pre-service Teacher Self-efficacy: Theoretical and Research Considerations. The New Educational Review, 21(2): 17-30.

Golbeck J, 2013. Analyzing the Social Web. Elsevier Inc.

Henson R K, 2001. Teacher Self-Efficacy: Substantive Implications and Measurement Dilemmas. Educational Research Exchange, January 26, 2001, Texas A & M University, Texas.

Hoy W K, Woolfolk A E, 1993. Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy and the Organizational Health of Schools. Element. Sch. J.93: 335–372.

Kozikoğlu İ, 2016. Analyzing the Relationship between Teachers’ Self-efficacy Perceptions and Their Professional Commitment Levels. European Journal of Education Studies, 2(5), 14-28.

Merç A, 2015. Foreign Language Teaching Anxiety and Self-efficacy Beliefs of Turkish Pre-service EFL Teachers. The International Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 6(3), 40-58.

Orange C, 2005. 44 Smart Strategies for Avoiding Classroom Mistakes. Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks: California.

Ormrod J E, 2006. Educational Psychology: Developing Learners (5th ed.), Glossary. N.J., Merrill: Upper Saddle River.

Özder H, 2011. Self-efficacy Beliefs of Novice Teachers and Their Performance in the Classroom. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(5). http://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2011v36n5.1

Özdemir S M, 2008. An Investigation of Prospective Primary Teachers’ Self-efficacy Beliefs regarding Teaching Process in terms of Certain Variables. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, 54, 277-306.

Sarfo F K, Amankwah F, Sam F K, Konin D, 2015. Teachers’ Self-efficacy Beliefs. GJDS, 12(1 & 2), 19-32.

Senemeoğlu N, Demirel M, Yağcı E, Üstündağ T, 2009. Elementary School Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs: A Turkish Case. Humanity & Social Sciences Journal, 4(2). 164-171.

Skaalvik E M, Skaalvik S, 2010. Teacher Self-efficacy and Teacher Burnout: A Study of Relations. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26: 1059-1069.

TALIS, 2008. OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey the Experience of New Teachers. Retrieved on May, 2016 from: https://books.google.com.tr/books?id=3y-_qIGqjU4C&printsec=frontcover&hl=tr#v=onepage&q&f=false.

TALIS, 2013. OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey: Conceptual framework. Retrieved on 4 November 2016 from http://www.oecd.org/edu/school/TALIS%202013%20Conceptual%20Framework.pdf

TALIS, 2014. A Teachers’ Guide to TALIS. OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey: Conceptual framework. Retrieved on 4 November 2016 from http://www.oecd.org/edu/school/TALIS%202014%20Conceptual%20Framework.pdf

Tschannen-Moran M, Hoy A W, 2007. The Differential Antecedents of Self-efficacy Beliefs of Novice and Experienced Teachers. Teaching & Teacher Education, 23(6), 944-956.

Woolfolk A, Winne P H, Perry N E, 2011. Educational Psychology (5th Canadian Edition). Newmarket, Ontario: Pearson Education Canada.

Yüksel B T, 2010. Teacher Efficacy Beliefs of Turkish EFL Teachers: A Study with Turkish EFL Teachers Working at State Primary Schools. MA Thesis, Anadolu University Institute of Social Sciences, Eskişehir.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v0i0.366


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Ağçam Reyhan, Muzaffer Pınar Babanoğlu

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).