INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE INTOLERANCE OF UNCERTAINTY AND LEVELS OF HEALTH PERCEPTION FACULTY OF SPORTS SCIENCES STUDENTS DURING THE PANDEMIC PROCESS

Hasan Ulukan

Abstract


The purpose of this research examining the relationship between the level of intolerance to uncertainty and health perceptions during distance education university students and explaining whether intolerance to uncertainty predicts perception of health. This study is descriptive research in the relational survey model. The sample group consisted of 276 students, 138 (50%) of whom were female, and 138 (50%) of whom were male, studying distance education in the spring term of 2019-2020. Personal information form prepared by the researchers, the "Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS-12)" and "Perception of Health Scale" were used to collect data. Research data were analyzed using SPSS 25.00 statistical package program. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and statistical regression techniques were used in the analysis of the data. The significance level was determined as .05. As a result of the research, it was determined that the students' intolerance level of uncertainty was at a medium level. Their perception of health was above the medium level. It was observed that there was a low-level negative relationship between the students' intolerance to uncertainty and their perception of health. It has been determined that intolerance to uncertainty is also a low predictor of perception of health.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


Keywords


Covid 19, uncertainty, intolerance of uncertainty, health, perception of health

Full Text:

PDF

References


Açıksöz, S., Uzun, Ş., Arslan, F. (2013). Hemşirelik öğrencilerinin sağlık algısı ile sağlığı geliştirme davranışları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi [Relationship between perceptions of health status and health promotion behaviors in nursing students]. Gülhane Medical Journal / Gülhane Tıp Dergisi, 55, 181-187. https://doi.org/10.5455/gulhane.15228

Ağaçdiken-Alkan, S., Özdelikara, A., Mumcu-Boğa, N. (2017). Hemşirelik öğrencilerinin sağlık algılarının belirlenmesi [Determination of nursing students’ health perception]. Gümüşhane University Journal of Health Sciences / Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, 6(2), 11-21. https://doi.org/10.5350/BTDMJB.20170310015347

Aguilar-Palacio, I., Carrera-Lasfuentes, P., Rabanaque, M. J. (2015). Salud percibida y nivel educativo en España: tendencias por comunidades autónomas y sexo (2001- 2012) [Self-rated health and educational level in Spain: Trends by autonomous communities and gender (2001-2012)]. Gaceta Sanitaria, 29(1), 37-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2014.07.004

American Thoracic Society (ATS) (2020). Health Status, Health Perceptions. Retrieved from: https://qol.thoracic.org/sections/key-concepts/health-status-health-perceptions.html

Ayaz, S., Tezcan, S., Akıncı, F. (2005). Hemşirelik yüksekokulu öğrencilerinin sağlığı geliştirme davranışları [Health promotion behavior of nursing school students]. Journal of Cumhuriyet University School of Nursing / Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Yüksek Okulu Dergisi, 9(2), 26-34.

Barahmand, U. & Haji, A. (2014). The impact of intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability on quality of life inpersons with epilepsy: Irritability as mediator. Epilepsy Research, 108(8), 1335-1344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2014.07.002

Barahmand, U., Shahbazi, Z., & Kalatari, P. (2014). Prevalence of obsessive belief and intolerance of uncertainty among college student. The Neuroscience Journal of Shefaye Khatam, 2(3), Suppl 1, P69.

Bayat, M. (2012). Sağlık ve hastalık: Kültürlerarası hemşirelik [Health and Disease: Intercultural Nursing]. Istanbul Tip Kitapevi.

Bıkmaz, Z., Akça-Yağan, N. (2020). Üniversite son sınıf öğrencilerinin iş bulma kaygısı ve belirsizliğe tahammülsüzlük düzeylerinin incelenmesi [Analysis of university senior students' levels of anxiety and intolerance of uncertainty to regarding job finding]. Pearson Journal of Socıal Scıences & Humanities, 5(8), 169-181. https://dx.doi.org/10.46872/Pj.161

Bottorff, J. L., Johnson, J. L., Ratner, P. A., Hayduk, L. A. (1996). The effects of cognitive-perceptual factors on health promotion behavior maintenance. Nursing Research 45(1), 30-36. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006199-199601000-00006

Bozkur, B., Kıran, B., & Cengiz, Ö. (2020). Üniversite öğrencilerinin umutsuzluk, belirsizliğe tahammülsüzlük, gelecekte iş bulmaya yönelik algı ve özyeterliklerinin incelenmesi [The examination of college students’ hopelessness, intolarence of uncertainity, perception towards finding a job and self-eficacy]. Kastamonu Education Journal / Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 28(6), 2401-2409. https://doi.org/10.24106/kefdergi.702233

Bozkurt, T. (2019). Üniversite öğrencilerinin otantiklik, sosyal bağlılık ve belirsizliğe tahammülsüzlük özelliklerinin sakin benlik düzeylerini yordayıcılığı [Predictability of university students’ authenticity, social connectedness and intolerance of uncertainty on quite ego levels]. Master’s Thesis. Anadolu University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Guidance and Psychological Counseling Program, Educational Sciences Department, Eskişehir.

Buhr, K., & Dugas, M. J. (2002). The intolerance of uncertainty scale: Psychometric properties of the english version. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40(8), 931–945. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(01)00092-4

Büyüköztürk, Ş., Akgün, E., Kılıç-Çakmak, E., Demirel, F., & Karadeniz, Ş. (2012). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri [Scientific research methods]. (11. edition). Pegem A Yayınları. https://doi.org/10.14527/9789944919289

Çalışkan, S., Aydoğan, S., Işıklı, B., Metintaş, S., Yenilmez, F., Yenilmez, Ç. (2018). Üniversite öğrencilerinde algılanan stres düzeyi ve ilişkili olabilecek faktörlerin değerlendirilmesi [Assessment of perceived stress level and related factors in university students]. Türk Dünyası Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi Halk Sağlığı Dergisi, 3(2), 39-49.

Çardak, M. (2012). Affedicilik yönelimli psiko-eğitim programının affetme eğilimi, belirsizliğe tahammülsüzlük, psikolojik iyi oluş, sürekli kaygı ve öfke üzerindeki etkisinin incelenmesi [Investigation of the effects of the psycho-education curriculum to enhance the tendency of forgiveness on intolerance to uncertainty, psychological well-being, persistent anxiety and anger]. Ph.D. Thesis, Sakarya University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Department of Educational Sciences, Division of Psychological Services in Education, Sakarya.

Carleton. R. N., Duranceau, S., Freeston, M. H., Boelen, P. A., McCabe, R. E. & Antony, M. M. (2014). But it might be a heart attack: Intolerance of uncertainty and panic disorder symptoms. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28(5), 463–470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2014.04.006

Carleton. R. N., Weeks, J. W., Howell, A. N., Asmundson, G. J., Antony, M. M., McCabe, R. E. (2012). Assessing the latent structure of the intolerance of uncertainty construct: An initial taxometric analysis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26(1): 150-157. https://doi.org/l0.1016/j.janxdis.2011.10.006

Carleton, R. N., Collimore, K. C. & Asmundson, G. (2010). It’s not just the judgments—It’s that I don’t know: Intolerance of uncertainty as a predictor of social anxiety. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24(2), 189–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2009.10.007

Carleton, R. N., Norton, M. P. J., & Asmundson, G. J. (2007). Fearing the unknown: A short version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21(1), 105-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2006.03.014

Çilingir, D. & Aydın, A. (2017). Hemşirelik bölümünde öğrenim gören öğrencilerin sağlık algısı [Department of Nursing Students’ Perception of Health]. FNJN Florence Nightingale Hemşirelik Dergisi / FNJN Florence Nightingale Journal of Nursing, 25(3): 167-176. https://doi.org/10.17672/fnjn.343254

Diamond, J. J., Becker, J. A., Arenson, C. A, Chambers, C. V., Rosenthal, M. P. (2007). Development of a scale to measure adults’ perceptions of health: priliminary findings. Journal of Community Psychology, 35(5), 557-561. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20164

Dugas, M. J., Schwartz, A., Francis, K. (2004) Brief report: intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research 28(6), 835-842. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-004-0669-0

Dugas, M. J., Buhr, K., & Ladouceur, R. (2004). The role of intolerance of uncertainty in etiology and maintenance. In R. G. Heimberg, C. L. Turk, & D. S. Mennin (Eds.), Generalized anxiety disorder: Advances in research and practice (p. 143–163). The Guilford Press.

Dugas, M. J., Gosselin, P., & Ladouceur, R. (2001). Intolerance of uncertainty and worry: Investigating specificity in a nonclinical sample. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25(5), 551-558. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1005553414688

Duman, N. (2020). Üniversite öğrencilerinde covid-19 korkusu ve belirsizliğe tahammülsüzlük [Covıd-19 Fear and intolerance to uncertainty in university students]. The Journal of Social Science, 4(8), 426-437. https://doi.org/10.30520/tjsosci.748404

Durmaz, S., Sürücü, E. & Özvurmaz, S., (2020). Mermer Fabrikası İşçilerinde Sağlık Okuryazarlığı, Sağlık Algısı Düzeyleri ve İlişkili Faktörlerin Belirlenmesi [Determination of health literacy, health perception levels and related factors of marble factory workers]. Medical Sciences (NWSAMS), 15(3), 81-91. https://doi.org/10.12739/NWSA.2020.15.3.1B0092

Erguvan, F. M. (2015). Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Belirsizliğe Tahammülsüzlük Düzeyleri İle Psikolojik İyi Olma Düzeylerinin İncelenmesi [An examination of intolerance of uncertainty levels and psychological well-being levels of university students]. Master Thesis, Sakarya University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Department of Educational Sciences, Division of Psychological Services in Education, Sakarya.

Eser, S., İkinci, S., Ocaktan, M. E., Çalışkan, D., Piyal, B., Akdur, R. (2012). Eczacılık Fakültesi öğrencilerinde sağlık algısının değerlendirilmesi [Evaluation of health perception of pharmacy faculty students]. 15. Ulusal Halk Sağlığı Kongresi Özet Kitabı / 15. National Public Health Congress Book, 2-6 Ekim, 592-594.

Freeston, M. H., Rhéaume, J., Letarte, H., Dugas, M. J., & Ladouceur, R. (1994). Why do people worry? Personality and Individual Differences, 17(6), 791-802. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(94)90048-5

Geçgin, F. M. & Sahranç, Ü. (2017). Belirsizliğe tahammülsüzlük ile psikolojik iyi oluş arasındaki ilişki [The relationships between intolerance of uncertainty and psychological well-being]. Sakarya University Journal of Education, 7(Special Issue 4), 739-755. https://doi.org/10.19126/suje.383737

Grenier, S., Barrette, A. M., & Ladouceur, R. (2005). Intolerance of uncertainty and intolerance of ambiguity: Similarities and differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(3), 593–600. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.02.014

Jeong-Sook, L. (2018). Effect of Resilience On İntolerance of Uncertainty İn Nursing University Students, Nursing Forum, 58(2), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/nuf.12297

Kadıoğlu, H., Yıldız, A. (2012). Sağlık Algısı Ölçeği’nin Türkçe Çevriminin Geçerlilik ve Güvenilirliği [Validity and Reliability of Turkish Version of Perception of Health Scale]. Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Medical Sciences, 32(1), 47-53. https://doi.org/10.5336/medsci.2010-21761

Kang, R. (1995). Building community capacity for health promotion: A challenge for public health nurses. Public Health Nursing, 12(5), 312-318. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1446.1995.tb00154.x

Karasar, N. (2009). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri [Scientific research methods]. Nobel Yayınları.

Karataş, Z. & Uzun, K. (2018). Belirsizliğe tahammülsüzlüğün yordayıcısı olarak endişe ile ilgili olumlu ve olumsuz inançlar [Positive and negative beliefs about worry as the predictors of intolerance of uncertainty]. Kastamonu Education Journal, 26(4), 1267-1276. https://doi.org/10.24106/kefdergi.434169

Kasapoğlu, F. (2020). COVID-19 salgını sürecinde kaygı ile maneviyat, psikolojik sağlamlık ve belirsizliğe tahammülsüzlük arasındaki ilişkilerin incelenmesi [Examination of the relationship between anxiety with spirituality, resilience and intolerance of uncertainty in the COVID-19 outbreak process]. Turkish Studies, 15(4), 599-614. https://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.44284

Kasperson, R. E. (2008). Coping with Deep Uncertainty: Challenges for Environmental Assessment and Decision-Making. In G. Bammer & M. Smithson (Ed.). Uncertainty and Risk: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. London, Cromwell Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781849773607

Klein-Velderman, M., Crone, M. R., Wiefferink, C. H., Reijneveld, S. A. (2010). Identification and management of psychosocial problems among toddlers by preventive child health care professionals. European Journal of Public Health, 20(3), 332-338. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckp169

Koerner, N. & Dugas, M. J. (2006). A cognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder: The role of intolerance of uncertainty. Worry and its psychological disorders: Theory, Assessment and Treatment, 201-216. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470713143.ch12

Koerner N. & Dugas M. J. (2008). An Investigation of appraisals in individuals vulnerable to excessive worry: the role of intolerance of uncertainty. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32(2): 619-638. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-007-9125-2

Kolac, N., Balci, A. S., Sisman, F. N., Atacer, B. E., Dincer, S. (2018). Health perception and healthy lifestyle behaviors in factory workers. The Medical Journal of Bakırköy / Bakırköy Tıp Dergisi, 14(3), 267-274. https://doi.org/10.5350/BTDMJB.20170328092601

Laıng, R. D. (2015). Bölünmüş benlik [Self of divided]. Pinhan Yayıncılık.

Lima-Costa, M. F., Firmo, J. O. A., Uchôa, E. (2004). The structure of self-rated health among older adults: the Bambuí health and ageing study (BHAS). Revista de Saude Publica, 38(6), 827-834. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0034-89102004000600011

Melo, A. C. F., Nakatani, A. Y. K., Pereira, L. V., Menezes, R. L., Pagotto, V. (2017). Prevalência de doenças musculoesqueléticas autorreferidas segundo variáveis demográficas e de saúde: estudo transversal de idosos de Goiânia/GO [Prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal diseases by demographic and health variables: cross-sectional study of elderly of Goiânia/GO]. Cadernos Saude Coletiva, 25(2), 138-143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1414-462x201700010274

Öz, F. (2004). Sağlık Alanında Temel Kavramlar [Basic Concepts in the Field of Health]. Ankara: İmaj İç ve Dış Ticaret AŞ, 12.

Özdelikara, A., Agaçdiken-Alkan, S., Mumcu, N. (2018). Determination of health perception, health anxiety and effecting factors among nursing students. The Medical Journal of Bakırköy / Bakırköy Tıp Dergisi, 14(3), 275-82. https://doi.org/10.5350/BTDMJB.20170310015347

Pagotto, V., Bachion, M. M., Silveira, E. A. (2013). Autoavaliação da saúde por idosos brasileiros: revisão sistemática da literature [Self-assessment of health by older Brazilians: systematic review of the literature]. Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica, 33(4), 302-310. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1020-49892013000400010

Pavão, A. L. B., Werneck, G. L., Campos, M. R. (2013). Autoavaliação do estado de saúde e a associação com fatores sociodemográficos, hábitos de vida e morbidade na população: um inquérito nacional [Self-rated health and the association with social and demographic factors, health behavior, and morbidity: a national health survey]. Cadernos de Saude Publica, 29(4), 723-734. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0102-311x2013000800010

Pender, N. J., Murdaug, C. L., Parsons, M. A. (2006). Health Promotion in Nursing Practice. (5. eds). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 367.

Robichaud, M., & Dugas, M. J. (2015). The generalized anxiety disorder workbook: A comprehensive cbt guide for coping with uncertainty, worry, and fear. New Harbinger Publications.

Sarıçam, H., Erguvan, F.M., Akın, A. & Akça, M.Ş. (2014). Belirsizliğe Tahammülsüzlük Ölçeği (BTÖ-12) Türkçe Formu: Geçerlik Ve Güvenirlik Çalışması. [The Turkish Short Version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty (IUS-12) Scale: The Study of Validity and Reliability]. Route Educational and Social Science Journal, 1(3), 148-157. https://doi.org/10.17121/ressjournal.109

Souto, T. S., Ramires, A., Leite, A., Santos, V., Santo, R. E. (2018). Health perception: validation of a scale for the Portuguese population. Trends in Psychology, 26(4), 2185–2201. https://doi.org/10.9788/tp2018.4-17en

Stanley-Budner, N. Y. (1962). Intolerance of ambiguity as a personality variable. Journal of Personality, 30(1), 29–50. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1962.tb02303.x

Tillet, L. A., & Pender, N. J. (1998). The health promotion. In Tomey MA, Alligood MR, eds. Nursing Theorist and Their Work. Mosby, St Louis Baltimore, 529-535.

Tuğut N., Bekar M. (2008). Üniversite öğrencilerinin sağlığı algılama durumları ile sağlıklı yaşam biçimi davranışları arasındaki ilişki [Cumhuriyet university student’s healthy perception state and the correlation of health promotion life style]. Atatürk Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Yüksekokulu Dergisi 11(3), 17-26.

Ulukan, M. & Esenkaya, A. (2020). Investigation of the relationship between university students' family harmony and intolerance of uncertainty levels in the COVID 19 process. Academic Social Resources Journal, 5(16), 398-409. http://dx.doi.org/10.31569/ASRJOURNAL.92

World Health Organization (WHO). (2020). Definition of Health. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/about/who-we-are/frequently-asked-questions.

Yalnızoğlu-Çaka, S., Topal, S., Karakaya-Suzan, Ö., Çınar, N., Altınkaynak, S. (2017). Hemşirelik öğrencilerin sağlık algısı ile özgüvenleri arasındaki ilişki [The relationship between nursing students’ health perception and self-confidence]. Journal of Human Rhythm, 3(4), 199-203.

Yook, K., Kim, K. H., Suh, S. Y. & Lee, K. S. (2010). Intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and rumination in major depressive disorder and generalised anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24(6), 623–628. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.04.003

Zaybak A., Fadıloğlu Ç. (2004). Üniversite öğrencilerinin sağlığı geliştirme davranışı ve bu davranışı etkileyen etmenlerin belirlenmesi [Determining of the health promotion behaviors of university students and the factors affecting these behaviors]. Ege Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Yüksek Okulu Dergisi, 20(1), 77-95.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v8i3.3647

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Hasan Ulukan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).