Zita Chika Obi, Cyril Ogugua Obi


This study probes the influence teachers’ perception and implementation of federal character principle in Nigerian Universities: a study of Nnamdi Azikiwe University. The research design adopted for this study is the descriptive survey research deign. The sample size for this study is 200 academic staff (educators’) of Nnamdi Azikiwe University. The findings of research question one indicated that academic staff of Nnamdi Azikiwe University agreed that the challenges of implementation of federal character principles associated with securing admission into federal university revealed that admission are not mostly done on merit and the quota system used in admission does not favour all applicants. The findings of this research question two found that most institutions do not comply with recruitment guidelines in the federal character principle document during recruitment, meritocracy or competencies are compromised in staff recruitment in Universities, vacancies are not advertised as stipulated in the federal character principle during staff recruitment, lobbying takes precedence in staff recruitment in universities, job description are not known during recruitment which is against the federal character principle statement etc. With reference to research question three, the findings indicated that most universities are being marginalized in fund allocation due to most Universities in disadvantaged states attract more funds than their counterparts in advantaged states, etc. According to research question four, the findings revealed that the challenges of implementation of federal character principles associated with appointment of staff to managerial posts include; appointments into managerial positions does not reflect the country’s diversity, the composition of positions are predominantly occupied by persons from few states, ethnicity and tribalism affects the appointment of persons into managerial posts, meritocracy is not considered during appointments and there is no equity in terms of access to be appointed in managerial positions. Finally, the findings of research question five, revealed that academic staff of Nnamdi Azikiwe University did agree to the strategies for mitigating the challenges to the implementation of the federal character principle in federal universities in Nigeria. Based on the findings and educational implications of this study, the following recommendations are made. The quota system principle should be equitably considered to benefit all citizens as the case may be. The federal character principle should be applied the way the framers of the policy envisaged. Finally, the duties and responsibilities of every nation are to ensure equal educational opportunities to all the citizens of the country with no form of sentiment attached to such responsibilities.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



teachers, perception, implementation, Federal Character Principle, Nnamdi Azikiwe University

Full Text:



Academic Planning Unit (2019). The total population of academic staff in University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Adamu, M. (1978). The Hausa factor in West African History. Zaria: ABU Press.

Adesoji, A. O. & Alao, A. (2009). Indigene ship and Citizenship in Nigeria; Myth and Reality. The Journal of Pan African Studies, 2(9),151-165

Adeosun, A. B. (2011). Federal Character Principle and National Integration: A critical appraisal. International Journal of Politics and Good Governance, 2, No.2.4 Quarter IV.

Agbodike, C. C. (2004). Federal Character Principle and National Integration. In Amuwo, K.; Agbaje, A.; Suberu, R. and Herault, G. (eds) Federalism and Political Restructuring in Nigeria. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Ltd.

Akpanabia, N. H. (2012). Federal character principle as a pitfall for national development in Nigeria.

Ammani, A. A. (2014). The Federal Character Principle as a Necessary Evil. Retrieved from, Accessed on 20/8/2014 43-49.

Ayaode, J. A. (1989). The federal character principle and the search for national integration. In K. Amuwo, A. Agbaje & R. T. Suberu, Federalism and political restructuring in Nigeria. Ibadan; Spectrum: p.101-120.

Bentley, A. F. (1908). The process of government: a study of social pressures. Chicago: University press.

Easton, E. (1940). The political system: an inquiry into the state of political science. New York: Alfred A. Knoph.

Ekeh P. P. (2003). The structure and meaning of the federal character in Nigerian political system. In Ekeh P. P. and Osaghae E. E. (eds) Federal character and federalism in Nigeria. Ibadan Heinemann educational books, p19-44.

Ezeibe, C. C. (2013). Federal character principle and nationality question in Nigeria. International journal of research in arts and social sciences.

Ezenwa, U. (1987). Participatory Politics: The Socio-Economic Dimension. NIPSS Conference Proceeding.

Izah, P. (1995). Commentary on Federal Character and Democracy in Nigeria in the Nigerian Journal of Political Science, Vol. 8 No. 1 and II, Department of Political Science, A.B.U., Zaria.

Kukah, M. H. (2003). Democracy and civil society in Nigeria. Ibadan, Spectrum Books.

List of Federal Universities in Nigeria (2019). List of federal universities in Nigeria. Retrieved July 15, 2019 from

Majekodunmi, A. (2013). Federal character principle as a recipe for national integration in Nigeria: An Overview. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences, 2(6).

Michner, H. A. DeLamater, J. D. & Myers, D. J. (2004). Social perception refers to constructing an understanding of the social world from the data we get through our senses. National Open University of Nigeria.

Nkwede J. O., Dauda, K. O. & Orija, O. A. (2018). Federalism and Contending Issues in Contemporary Nigeria: Mapping Alternative Perspectives for a Neo-Federalist Paradigm. Asian Social Science, 14(10), 111-119.

Nworgu, B. G. (2015). Educational research, basic issues and methodology. Nsukka: University Trust Publishers.

Obiyan, A. S. & Akindele, S. T. (2002). The Federal Character Principle and Gender Representation in Nigeria, Journal of Social Sciences, 6(4): 241-246.

Ojo, E. (2009). Federalism and the search for national integration in Nigeria, African. Journal of political sciences and international relations.

Ojo, E. (2009). Mechanisms of national integration in a multi-ethnic Federation State the Nigerian experience. Ibadan: John Archers.

Okafor, F. C. (2003). Philosophy of education and third world perspective. Virginia: Brunswick.

Okeke, C. I. (2019). Implementation and enforcement of the federal character principle in Nigeria. NAUJILJ, 10 (2), 174-185.

Okpala, G., Ude W. & Echefu F. E. (2019). The Federal Character Principles in Nigerian Public Service Exercise towards an output efficiency at the National Planning Commission (NPC). International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 9(5), 307-310.

Okobiah, O. S. (2014). The educational imbalance between the northern and states of Nigeria: A re-direction of educational policies. (online accessed February 24 2019).

Okoli, F. C. (2004). Theory and practice of public organisations. Enugu: John Jacobs Classic Publisher ltd.

Okolo, O. O. (2014). Influence of Federal Character Principle on National Integration in Nigeria. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 4(6)55-64.

Olasunkanmi, A. & Agulanna, C. (2018). Interrogating the Constitutionality of Federal Character Principle in Nigeria. International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review, 09(07), 20492- 20498.

Onimisi, T., Samsu, K. H. K., Ismail, M. M. B. & Mohd Nor, M. B. W. (2017). Application of federal character policy: Role and constraint of the civil society in Nigeria. Journal of Policy and Development Studies, 11(3), 73-80.

Onwubiko P. (2014). Perish admissions quota, federal character. Daily Newswatch [Online] Available from:[Accessed February 2019]; June, 2019.

Onwuka, C. J. A. (2011). Introduction to education: The Nigerian perspective. Nsukka: Chuka educational.

Osifeso, B. (2011). The principle of Federal character in Nigeria; Implication for federal stability.

Puja, M. (2018). Educational system: the meaning, aspects and social functions of education. Retrieved November 15, 2018.

Rouse, M. (2015). Implementation. Retrieved July 15, 2019 from

Tukur, A. (2015). Federal character principle and quota system in Nigeria: A critical assessment of the recruitment exercise in public service. A case study of Federal Inland Revenue (FIRS) Sokoto State. An unpublished project work written to the department of public administration, faculty of management sciences Usman Danfodio University Sokoto, Nigeria for the partial fulfilment of the minimum requirement for the award of first degree.

Uchealor, H. N., Udebu, A. & Udde, C. O. (2011). Problems associated with quota system in Nigerian educational system. An unpublished project work written to the department of social science education, faculty of education University of Nigeria, Nsukka for the partial fulfilment of the minimum requirement for the award of first degree.

Ukeje, B. O. (2004). Introduction to education, the Nigerian perspective. In C.J.A., Onwuka (2011). Education for social reconstruction. Chuka educational publishers, Nsukka.

Yolanda, W. (2018). What is perception in psychology? Definition and theory. Retrieved on 20 0ctober, 2018 from



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Zita Chika Obi, Cyril Ogugua Obi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2022. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).