Souksakhone Sengsouliya, Sithane Soukhavong, Nieo Silavong, Souk Sengsouliya, Farrah Littlepage


This study investigated: 1) senior high school students’ academic engagement; 2) factors predicting their academic engagement. The sample for this study included senior high school students from two different contexts: Vientiane capital and Luangprabang. A purposive sampling technique was used. The study employed a convergent parallel design. Both quantitative and qualitative were collected simultaneously through questionnaires, interviews, and observations. This study analyzed for percentage, mean, and standard deviation, and conducted a content analysis. The results showed that most of the students hold a high level of engagement in all three dimensions (emotional, behavioral, and cognitive). The behavioral and emotional dimensions had the highest engagement scores (= 3.45; = 3.42), showing that the students in the sample are likely to be engaged in learning behaviorally and emotionally. Furthermore, the study found that teacher and peer interaction are the most powerful factors predicting their academic engagement. Most of the students consider the kindness and friendliness of teachers to be important for their engagement. Moreover, the students in the sample also indicate that they are more engaged in learning if teachers provide opportunities to have discussions with peers. To implement a good teaching and learning environment in high school levels, and especially to promote senior high school students’ learning engagement, administrators should consider creating a close follow-up plan on teacher professional development activities, which could help ensure the quality of teaching in schools. In addition, it is recommended that school leaders integrate more extra-curricular activities, as well as more opportunities for parent/guardian participation.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



influential factors, academic engagement, high school students

Full Text:



Ahlfeldt, S., Mehta, S., & Sellnow, T. (2005). Measurement and analysis of student engagement in university classes where varying levels of PBL methods of instruction are in use. Higher Education Research & Development, 24, 5-20. doi:10.1080/0729436052000318541

Alrashidi, O., Phan, H. P., & Ngu, B. H. (2016). Academic Engagement: An Overview of Its Definitions, Dimensions, and Major Conceptualisations. International Education Studies, 9, 41-52.

Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., Kim, D., & Reschly, A. L. (2006). Measuring cogni-tive and psychological engagement: Validation of the student engagement instru-ment. Journal of School Psychology, 44(5), 427- 445.

Carini, R. M., Kuh, G. D., & Klein, S. P. (2004). Student Engagement and Student Learning: Testing the Linkages. San Diego: Department of Sociology, University of Louisville.

Coates, H. (2006). Student engagement in campus-based and online education: University connections. New York: Routledge.

Conner, T. (2011). Academic engagement ratings and instructional preferences: Comparing behavioral, cognitive, and emotional engagement among three school-age student cohorts. Review of Higher Education and Self-Learning, 4(13), 52-62.

DeVito, M. (2016). Factors Influencing Student Engagement. n.p: Sacred Heart University.

Fredricks, A. J., & McColskey, W. (2012). The Measurement of Student Engagement: A Comparative Analysis of Various Methods and Student Self-report Instruments. London: Human Development , Connecticut College.

Fredrick, J. A., Blumenfeld, P., & Paris, A. (2004). The Role of School and Home in Promoting Student Engagement. n.p: n.p.

Furrer, C. J., Skinner, E. A., & Pitzer, J. R. (2014). The Influence of Teacher and Peer Relationships on Students’ Classroom Engagement and Everyday Motivational Resilience. National Society for the Study of Education, 101-123.

Garrett, C. (2011). Defining, Detecting, and Promoting Student Engagement in College Learning Environments. Defining, Detecting, and Promoting Student Engagement, 1-12.

Gedera, D., Williams, J., & Wright, N. (2015). Identifying Factors Influencing Students’ Motivation and Engagement in Online Courses. C. Koh (ed.), Motivation, Leadership and Curriculum design. DOI 10.1007/978-981-287-230-2_2

Groves, M., Sellars, C., Smith, J., & Barber, A. (2015). Factors Affecting Student Engagement: A Case Study Examining Two Cohorts of Students Attending a Post-1992 University in the United Kingdom. International Journal of Higher Education, 4, 27-37.

Guvenc, H. (2015). The relationship between teachers’ motivational support and engagement versus disaffection. Educational Science: Theory and Practice, 15(3), 647-657.

Hattie, J., & Anderman, E. M. (2013). International guide to student achievement. New York: Routledge.

Hart, S. R., Stewart, K., & Jimerson, S. R. (2011). The Student Engagement in Schools Questionnaire (SESQ) and the Teacher Engagement Report Form-New (TERF-N): Examining the Preliminary Evidence. California: University of California Santa Barbara.

Hu, Y. L., & Ching, G. (2012). Factors affecting student engagement: An analysis on how and why students learn. Conference on Creative Education, 989-992.

Jennings, J. M., & Angelo, T. (2006). Student engagement: measuring and enhancing engagement with learning. New Zealand : Behalf of Symposium participants.

Tassel-Baska, J. V., Avery, L., Struck, J., Feng, A., Brenken, B., Drummon, D., & Stambaugh, T. (2003). The William and Mary Classroom Observation Scales Revised. n.p: United States Department of Education.

Jeffrey, L. M., Milne, J., Suddaby, G., & Higgins, A. (2012). Help or Hindrance: blended approaches and student engagement. Wellington: Ako Aotearoa National Centre for Tertiary Teaching Excellence.

Kraft, M., & Dougherty, S. (2013). The effect of teacher-family communication on studentengagement: Evidence from a randomized field experiment. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 6, 199-222.

Martin, J., & Torres, A. (2016). What is Student Engagement and Why is it Important? n.p: n.p.

MoES (2018). Educational and Sports Development Plan: A report of mid-term implementation. Vientiane capital, Laos' Ministry of Education and Sports.

Murray, S., Mitchell, J., Gale, T., Edwards, J., & Zyngier, D. (2004). Student disengagement from primary schooling: a review of research and practice. n.p: Centre for Childhood Studies, Faculty of Education, Monash University.

O'Brien, M. K. B. (2015). Factors Influencing the Academic Engagement of Upper-Division Undergraduate International Students: A Case Study of the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities. (A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Minnesota). n.p: University of Minnesota.

Olson, A., & Peterson, R. L. (2015). Student Engagement. Lincoln: University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Pianta, R. C., Hamre, B. K., & Allen, J. P. (2012). Teacher-Student Relationships and Engagement: Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Improving the Capacity of Classroom Interactions. Teacher-Student Relationships and Engagement, 17, 365-386.

Reyes, M. R., Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., White, M., and Salovey, P. (2012). Classroomemotional climate, student engagement, and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(3), 700-712.

Russell, B., & Slater, G. (2011). Factors that encourage student engagement: Insights from a case study of ‘first time’ students in a New Zealand university. Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 8(1), 1-15.

Sengsouliya, S., Soukhavong, S., Pongnathy, P. (2015). Instructional Barriers and PD Needs by Secondary School Teachers in Vientiane Capital. Scientific Journal of National University of Laos, Vol.8, 182-192.

Tan, Y. T. (2015). Student Engagement in Two Singaporean Secondary Schools. n.p: Faculty of Education, University of Jyväskylä.

Taylor, L., & Parsons, J. (2011). Improving Student Engagement. Current Issues in Education, 14, 1-33.

Trowler, V. (2010). Student engagement literature review. Heslington: Department of Educational Research, Lancaster University.

Umbach, P. D., & Wawrzynski, M. R. (2005). Faculty do matter: The role of college faculty in student learning and engagement. Research in Higher Education, 46(2), 153–184.

Veiga, F. H., Burden, R., Appleton, J., Taveira, M. C., & Galvao, D. (2014). Student’s Engagement in School: Conceptualization and relations with Personal Variables and Academic Performance. Revista de Psicología y Educación, 29-47.

Wang, M. T., & Eccles, J. S. (2013). School context, achievement motivation, and academicengagement: A longitudinal study of school engagement using a multidimensional perspective. Learning and Instruction, 28(1), 12-23.

Willms, J. D. (2003). Student Engagement at School: a Sense of Belonging and Participation. n.p: under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD.

Witkowski, P., & Cornel, T. (2015). An Investigation into Student Engagement in Higher Education Classrooms. Journal of Scholarly Teaching, 10, 56- 67.

Zepke, N., Leach, L., & Butler, P. (2010). Student Engagement: What Is It and What Influences It? Wellington: n.p.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Souksakhone Sengsouliya, Sithane Soukhavong, Nieo Silavong, Souk Sengsouliya, Farrah Littlepage

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2022. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).