INVESTIGANDO OS EFEITOS DO PROGRAMA DE ENRIQUECIMENTO INSTRUMENTAL BÁSICO EM UM ESTUDO DE CASO ÚNICO / THE EFFECTS OF THE FEUERSTEIN'S INSTRUMENTAL ENRICHMENT BASIC PROGRAM IN A SINGLE CASE DESIGN

Bruna Luísa de Souza Pereira, Mariana Teles Santos Golino, Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes

Abstract


A literatura aponta para a eficácia de intervenções na alteração de habilidades cognitivas em idosos saudáveis e não-institucionalizados. O Programa de Enriquecimento Instrumental (PEI) faz parte desses programas. Há cerca de 15 anos, foi elaborado o PEI, versão básica (PEI-B), para intervir junto à crianças de 4 a 8 anos, pessoas com déficits cognitivos ou idade avançada. Diferentemente do PEI, há uma carência de estudos sobre a eficácia do PEI-B. O presente artigo analisa os efeitos do PEI-B, assim como a viabilidade de aplicação do programa em idosos institucionalizados, por meio do desenho experimental randomizado de caso único com controle. O PEI-B foi aplicado em uma participante de 76 anos, sexo feminino, e o controle foi composto de nove participantes (Média de idade = 72,6 anos), ambos residentes de uma instituição de longa permanência. Os instrumentos utilizados no pré e pós-teste foram o Mini Exame do Estado Mental e o Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease. Foram conduzidos vinte encontros individuais do PEI-B. Foi utilizado o teste t modificado e a análise Bayesiana para comparação do ganho do caso versus o ganho do controle. Os efeitos mais salientes foram encontrados nas tarefas de Memória Incidental e Reconhecimento de Figuras, que avaliam, respectivamente, memória de curto-prazo visuo-espacial e memória episódica visuo-espacial. No entanto, as diferenças não foram estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05). O desenho de caso único demanda uma diferença muito pronunciada entre o caso e o controle para alcançar significância estatística. Sugere-se, pois, novos estudos, com o emprego de técnicas mais usuais, capazes de mais facilmente capturar diferenças reais pequenas e moderadas. Destaca-se a viabiliade do PEI-B. Ele mostrou-se exequível, em termos de sua aplicação, e foi capaz de promover intensa motivação, desejo de aprender e engajamento.

The literature points out the effectiveness of interventions in changing cognitive abilities in healthy and non-institutionalized elderly people. The Feuerstein’s Instrumental Enrichment Program (FIE) is part of these programs. About 15 years ago, FIE basic level (FIE-B) was developed to intervene in children between 4 and 8 years old, as well people with cognitive deficits or elderly people. Unlike FIE, there is a lack of studies on the effectiveness of FIE-B. The present article analyzes the effects of FIE-B and the viability of the program to be applied in institutionalized elderly persons. The study uses a randomized single case with control design. The FIE-B was applied in a female 76 years-old, and the control was composed of nine participants (M=72.6 years old), both residents of a long-term institution. The Mini Mental State Examination and the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease were applied in pre and post-test. The PEI-B was applied in 20 sessions. The modified t-test and Bayesian analysis were used to compare the gain of the case to the control gain. The most outstanding effects were found in the tasks of Incidental Memory and Recognition of Figures, which, respectively, evaluate visual-spatial short-term memory and visual-spatial episodic memory. However, the differences were not statistically significant (p < 0.05). The single case design demands a very pronounced difference between the case and the control to reach statistical significance. Hence, further studies are suggested through usual techniques capable of better capture small and moderate real differences. The results highlight the availability of FIE-B. The program is feasible in terms of its application; as well it is able to promote intense motivation, desire to learn and engagement.

 

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Keywords


intervenção cognitiva, Programa de Enriquecimento Instrumental, envelhecimento, envelhecimento cognitivo, estudo de caso / cognitive intervention, The Feuerstein’s Instrumental Enrichment Program, aging, cognitive aging, case study

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v0i0.2669

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