Katerina Krousorati


Home learning activities has widely recognized as a strong contributor to the quality of the broader Home Learning Environment (HLE). A large body of research has examined the relationship between the quality of parental involvement in different types of learning activities and the child’s cognitive development. However, existing measures of Home Learning Activities (HLA) are subjects of limitations. The aim of the present study was to examine the factorial validity of the Home Learning Activities Scale (HLAS). The HLAS was developed as a comprehensive self-report measure to assess three dimensions of stimulating activities that parents engage in with their children: indoor, outdoor and digital HLA. One hundred seventy-five parents from Northern Greece completed the HLAS. Exploratory factor analysis was recruited and revealed three factors. Descriptive statistics were analyzed in order to investigate the profile and the characteristic of HLA in Greece. Consistent with previous research the current study confirmed the factorial validity of the two basic dimensions of HLA: indoor and outdoor HLA. It was also introduced and validated a third dimension, the digital HLA. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient showed high internal consistency for digital and indoor HLA and adequate internal consistency for outdoor HLA. HLAS is a useful questionnaire for measuring the parental engagement in HLA. Limitations and implications for policy and practice are discussed.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



home learning environment, home learning activities, instrument for HLA, digital home learning activities, early childhood education

Full Text:



Anders, Y., Grosse, C., Rossbach, H., Ebert, S., & Weinert, S. (2013). Preschool and primary school influences on the development of children's early numeracy skills between the ages of 3 and 7 years in Germany. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 24(2), 195-211.

Anders, Y., Rossbach, H., Weinert, S., Ebert, S., Kuger, S., Lehrl, S., & Maurice, J. (2012). Home and preschool learning environments and their relations to the development of early numeracy skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27(2), 231-244.

Aspland, H., & Gardner, F. (2003). Observational measures of parent‐child interaction: An introductory review. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 8(3), 136-143.

Bojczyk, K. E., Haverback, H. R., & Pae, H. K. (2018). Investigating Maternal Self-Efficacy and Home Learning Environment of Families Enrolled in Head Start. Early Childhood Education Journal, 46(2), 169-178.

Bradley, R. H., & Caldwell, B. M. (1995). Care giving and the regulation of child growth and development: Describing proximal aspects of caregiving systems. Developmental Review, 15(1), 38–85.

Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (1998). The ecology of developmental processes. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Theoretical models of human development (pp. 993-1028). Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Bulotsky-Shearer, R. J., Wen, X., Faria, A., Hahs-Vaughnd, D. L., & Korfmachere, J. (2012). National Profiles of classroom quality and family involvement: A multilevel examination of proximal influences on Head Start children’s school readiness. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27, 627–639. doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2012.02.001

Caldwell, B. M., & Bradley, R. H. (2003). Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Inventory: Administration manual. Little Rock: University of Arkansas.

Danby, S., Fleer, M., Davidson, C., & Hatzigianni, M. (2018). Digital childhood. Amsterdam: Springer.

Davies, C. (2011). Digitally strategic: how young people respond to parental views about the use of technology for learning in the home. Journal of computer assisted learning, 27(4), 324-335.

Dearing, E., & Tang, S. (2010). The Home Learning Environment and Achievement during Childhood. In Christenson S. L. & Reschly A. L. (Eds), Handbook of School – Family Partnerships (pp. 131 - 157). New York, NY: Routledge.

Evangelou. M., & Wild. M. (2014) Connecting Home and Educational Play: Interventions that Support Children’s Learning. In Brooker. L., Blaise. M, & Edwards. S (Eds), The Sage Handbook of: Play and Learning in Early Childhood (pp. 378-391). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Fantuzzo, J. W., Tighe, E., McWayne, C. M., Davis, G., & Childs, S. (2002). Parent involvement in early childhood education and children’s peer play competencies: An examination of multivariate relationships. NHSA Dialog: A Research-To-Practice. Journal for the Early Intervention Field, 6, 3–21.

Farver, J. M., Xu, Y., Eppe, S., & Lonigan, C. J. (2006). Home environments and young Latino children’s school readiness. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 21(2), 196–212. doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2006.04.008

Forget‐Dubois, N., Dionne, G., Lemelin, J. P., Pérusse, D., Tremblay, R. E., & Boivin, M. (2009). Early child language mediates the relation between home environment and school readiness. Child Development, 80(3), 736-49.

Foster, M. A., Lambert, R., Abott-Shim, M., McCarty, F., & Franze, S. (2005). A model of home learning and social risk factors in relation to children’s emergent literacy and social outcomes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 20(1), 13–36.

Grammatikopoulos, V., Gregoriadis, A., Zachopoulou, E. (2012). Acknowledging the role of motor domain in creativity in early childhood education. In: Saracho, O. N. (ed.). Contemporary Perspectives on Research in Creativity in Early Childhood Education, (pp. 159-176). Information Age Publishing.

Griffith, S. F., & Arnold, D. H. (2019). Home learning in the new mobile age: parent–child interactions during joint play with educational apps in the US. Journal of Children and Media, 13(1), 1-19.

Hartas, D. (2015). Parenting for social mobility? Home learning, parental warmth, class and educational outcomes. Journal of Education Policy, 30(1), 21-38.

Hayes, N., Berthelsen, D. C., Nicholson, J. M., & Walker, S. (2018). Trajectories of parental involvement in home learning activities across the early years: associations with socio-demographic characteristics and children’s learning outcomes. Early Child Development and Care, 188(10), 1405-1418.

Heath, R. W., Levin, P. F., & Tibbetts, K. A. (1993). Development of home learning environment profile. In R. N. Roberts (Ed.), Coming home to preschool: The sociocultural context of early education (pp. 91–132). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Hindman, A. H., & Morrison, F. J. (2012). Differential Contributions of Three Parenting Dimensions to Preschool Literacy and Social Skills in a Middle-Income Sample. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 58 (2), 191-223.

IBM Corp. Released (2017). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.

Kluczniok, K., Lehrl, S., Kuger, S, & Rossbach, H. (2013). Quality of the home learning environment during preschool age – Domains and contextual conditions. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 21(3), 420-438.

LeFevre, J., Skwarchuk, S., Smith-Chant, B. L., Fast, L., Kamawar, D., & Bisanz, J. (2009). Home numeracy experiences and children’s math performance in the early school years. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 41(2), 55-66.

Liu, C., Georgiou, G. K., & Manolitsis, G. (2018). Modeling the relationships of parents’ expectations, family’s SES, and home literacy environment with emergent literacy skills and word reading in Chinese. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 43, 1-10.

Manolitsis, G., Georgiou, G. K., & Tziraki, N. (2013). Examining the effects of home literacy and numeracy environment on early reading and math acquisition. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(4), 692-703.

Melhuish, E. C., Phan, M. B., Sylva, K., Sammons, P., Siraj‐Blatchford, I., & Taggart, B. (2008). Effects of the home learning environment and preschool center experience upon literacy and numeracy development in early primary school. Journal of Social Issues 64(1), 95-114.

Morrison, F. J., & Cooney, R. R. (2002). Parenting and academic achievement: Multiple paths to early literacy. In J. G. Borkowski, S. L. Ramey, & M. Bristol-Power (Eds.), Parenting and the child’s world: Influences on academic, intellectual, and social-emotional development (pp. 141–160). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Neumann, M. M. (2018). Parent scaffolding of young children’s use of touch screen tablets. Early Child Development and Care, 188(12), 1654-1664.

Niklas, F., & Schneider, W. (2017). Home learning environment and development of child competencies from kindergarten until the end of elementary school. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 49, 263–274.

Niklas, F., Cohrssen, C., & Tayler, C. (2016). Parents supporting learning: A non-intensive intervention supporting literacy and numeracy in the home learning environment. International Journal of Early Years Education, 24(2), 121-142.

Palaiologou, I. (2016). Children under five and digital technologies: implications for early years pedagogy. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 24(1), 5-24.

Papadopoulou, E., & Gregoriadis, A. (2017). Young children’s perceptions of the quality of teacher-child interactions and school engagement in Greek kindergartens. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 15(3), 323-335. DOI: 10.1177/1476718XI6656212

Parker, F. L., Boak, A. Y., Griffin, K. W., Ripple, C., & Peay, L. (1999). Parent-child relationship, home learning environment, and school readiness. School Psychology Review, 28(3), 413 – 425.

Pyrgiotakis, I. E. (2008). Greek Family: Structure and Function-Developments and Perspectives. Scientific Yearbook of the Psychological Society of Northern Greece, 6, 1-33.

Purpura, D. J., & Napoli, A. R. (2015). Early numeracy and literacy: untangling the relation between specific components. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 17, 197–218.

Rodriguez, E. T., & Tamis‐LeMonda, C. S. (2011). Trajectories of the home learning environment across the first 5 years: associations with children’s vocabulary and literacy skills at prekindergarten. Child Development, 82(4), 1058-75.

Sammons, P. Toth, K., Sylva, K., Melhuish, E., Siraj, I., & Taggart, B. (2015). The long-term role of the home learning environment in shaping students’ academic attainment in secondary school. Journal of Children's Services, 10(3), 189–201.

Sénéchal, M., & LeFevre, J. (2002). Parental involvement in the development of children's reading skill: A five-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 73(2), 445-460.

Sénéchal, M., LeFevre, J., Hudson, E., & Lawson, E. P. (1996). Knowledge of storybooks as a predictor of young children's vocabulary. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(3), 520-536. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.88.3.520

Skwarchuk, S-L. Sowinski, C., & LeFevre, J-A. (2014). Formal and informal home learning activities in relation to children’s early numeracy and literacy skills: The development of a home numeracy model. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 121, 63–84.

Snow, C. E., & Oh, S. S. (2010). Assessment in early literacy research. In S. B. Neuman and D. K. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of Early Literacy Research. (Vol. 3, pp. 375-395). New York: Guilford Press.

Son, S., & Morrison, F. J. (2010). The nature and impact of changes in home learning environment on development of language and academic skills in preschool children. Developmental Psychology, 46(5), 1103-1118.

Son, S. C., & Peterson, M. F. (2017). Marital Status, Home Environments, and Family Strain: Complex Effects on Preschool Children's School Readiness Skills. Infant and Child Development, 26(2), e1967. doi: 10.1002/icd.1967

Streiner, D. L. (1994). Figuring out factors: The use and misuse of factor analysis. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 135-140.

Sylva, K., & Pugh, G. (2005). Transforming the early years in England. Oxford Review of Education, 31(1), 11-27. DOI: 10.1080/0305498042000337165

Sylva, K., Melhuish, E., Sammons, P., Siraj-Blatchford, I., & Taggart, B. (2004). The final report: effective pre-school education. London: Institute of Education. University of London.

Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Luo, R., McFadden, K. E., Bandel, E. T., & Vallotton, C. (2019). Early home learning environment predicts children’s 5th grade academic skills. Applied Developmental Science, 23(2), 153-169.

Totsika, V., & Sylva, K. (2004). The home observation for measurement of the environment revisited. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 9(1), 25-35.

Verhoeven, M., Deković, M., Bodden, D., & van Baar, A. L. (2017). Development and initial validation of the comprehensive early childhood parenting questionnaire (CECPAQ) for parents of 1–4 year-olds. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14(2), 233-247.

Williams, B., Brown, T., & Onsman, A. (2010). Exploratory factor analysis: A five-step guide for novices. Australasian Journal of Paramedicine, 8(3).

Yu, M., & Daraganova, G. (2015). Children’s Early Home Learning Environment and Learning Outcomes in the Early Years of School (63–82). In The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children Annual Statistical Report 2014. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

Zachopoulou, V., Grammatikopoulos, V., Gregoriadis A., et al. (2013). Comparing aspects of the process quality in six European early childhood educational settings. In ICERI 6th International Conference of Education Research and Innovation Conference Proceedings (pp. 4218-4224). 18-20 November 2013, Seville, Spain.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v0i0.2660


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Katerina Krousorati

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).