Saziso Mukomana


Although Zimbabwe has tried devoting resources to address vast educational challenges, literature reviewed has indicated that Zimbabwe education system despite reconstruction efforts still lacks priority towards consolidation and improvement of both quality and quantity in STEM pedagogy. This research through constant comparison of gathered data analysed learner-centred STEM education access challenges, from the internet and libraries. Data collection and analysis took place simultaneously. The research found out that, sustainability of science oriented education (STEM) greatly depends on both quality and quantity educational improvement. Closely associated with the discussion of quality are debates on the appropriateness of teaching pedagogies to promote STEM individualised intellectual empowerment, for both life-skills and socio-economic transformation. STEM focused education is not a new philosophical concept in the history of African and Western philosophies of education. Contemporary Zimbabwe education system curriculum does embrace both science and arts education orientations. In the dual education orientation the key qualitative teaching and learning challenge in Zimbabwe today is educational discrimination through STEM streaming-challenging 21st education theoretical trends of inclusive education for all. Given the challenge this research concluded that, STEM sustainability greatly relies on how STEM is democratised and taught in the classroom. The major recommendation is individualised teaching approaches of STEM subjects.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



teaching challenges, STEM, resuscitation

Full Text:



Abdi, A. A. (2012). Decolonising philosophies of education. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Agriculture to widen the forex base”. IDS Bulletin, Issue 2, University of Zimbabwe

Ajayi J. F. A., Goma L. K. H., and Johnson, G. A. (1996). The African experience with higher education. London: James Currey.

Baines, J. (2007). Visual and written culture in ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press.

Barrow, R. and Woods, R. (2006). An Introduction to philosophy of education. New York: Routledge.

Barton, L. (2004). “Social inclusion and education: Issues and questions”. Paper presented at the ESRC seminar Towards Inclusion: Social Inclusion and Education, 19th July 2004. Institute of Education: London.

Bergmann, H. (1996). “Quality of education and the demand for education: Evidence from developing countries”. International Review of Education, 42(6): 581-604.

Carr, D. (2003). Making sense of education: an introduction to the Philosophy and theory of education and teaching. New York: Routledge Falmer.

Chireshe, R., Shumba, A., Mudhovozi, P., and Denhere, C. (2009). “University students’ attribution towards academic success or failure”. South African Journal of Higher Education, 25(5), 865-876.

Colclough. C., Lofstedt J-I., Mondovi-Moyo, J., Maravanyika, O.E., and Ngwata, W.S. (1990). Education in Zimbabwe issues of quantity and quality, SIDA, Education Division Documents No 50, A Joint Swedish/Zimbabwe education sector Study.

Cromwell, S. (1999). “Homogeneous or Heterogeneous: Which way to go?” Paper with Links for Education World: http://www.education-world.com/a-issues046.shtml, Retrieved, 10 January 2017.

Curren, R. (2007). Philosophy of education: An Anthology. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

DiMartino, J. (2005). Reading real equity in Schools. Education Digest 70(5), 9-13.

Dukmak, D. (2009). “Ability grouping and teacher-students interaction among high and low achieving students in middle primary schools in the United Arab Emirates” Journal Of Faculty of Education UAEU, 26, 1-30.

Dunn, S. G. (2005). Philosophical foundations of education: Connecting Philosophy to theory and practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Esterberg, K. K. (2002). Qualitative methods in School Research. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Gadalla, M. (2007). The ancient Egyptian culture revealed. Greensboro, NC: Tehuti Research Foundation.

Gray, D. E. (2010). Doing research in the real world, 2nd ed. London: SAGE.

Hansen, D. (2007). Ethical visions of education: Philosophy in practice. New York: Teachers College Press.

Harper, C. (1989). Politics in African Education. London: MacMillan Publishers.

Harper, C. (1997). Education, democracy and political development in Africa. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press.

Hegarty, S. and Alur, M. (2002). Education and children with special needs: From Segregation to Inclusion. California: SAGE.

Hoffer, T. B. (1992). “School ability grouping and student attainment in science and Mathematics”. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 14(3), 205-227.

Karras K. G., Calogiannakis, P., Wolhuter, C. C. and Kontogianni, D. (Ed). (2015). Education and teacher education in the modern world: Problems and challenges. Cambridge Scholars Publishing: Newcastle.

Kilgour, P. W. (2007). “Student, teacher and parent perceptions of classroom environments in streamed and unstreamed Mathematics classrooms”. Unpublished Doctor of Mathematics Education Thesis. Bentley, WA: Curtin University of Technology.

Kumar, P. A. (2004). “Ability grouping and academic Achievement”. Masalah Pendilikan Jilid, 27, 109-118.

Liu, H. J. (2009), “Exploring changes in academic self-concept in ability-grouped English classes”. Chang Gung Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2, 411-432.

Makoell, T. M. (2016). Inclusive teaching in South Africa. Durban: Sun Press.

Mansor, A. N., Maniam, P. P., Hunt, M. C. and Nor, M. Y. M. (2016). “Benefits and disadvantages of streaming practices to accommodate students by ability”. Creative Education 7, 2547-2558: http://www.scirp.org/journal/ce, accessed 20 November, 2017.

Marks, R. (2011). “Ability in primary mathematics education: Patterns and implications”. Proceedings of the British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics, 31, 91-96: http://www.dx.doiorg/10.1080/14794802.2011.624753, retrieved 23 May 2012.

Masuko, L. (2002). “Managing scarce foreign currency in Zimbabwe: The potential of

Masuko, L. (2003). “Current performance of the education sector in Zimbabwe. Paper Presented at Workshop on Sectoral Economic Development, Policy Challenges and the Way Forward”. Harare International Conference Centre 26-27 June 2003: Zimbabwe National Chamber of Commerce and Freidreich Ebert Stifting.

Merriam, S. (2007). Qualitative research and case study: Application in education. Revised and Expanded from Case Study Research in Education.

Mudimbe, V. Y. (1996). The idea of Africa. London: Indiana University Press.

Mungazi, D.A. (1982). The underdevelopment of African education. Washington, D.C: University Press of America.

Musoro, L. (2002). Contemporary challenges and Prospects of the Zimbabwean economy. Poverty Reduction Forum: Harare.

Nind, M. (2005). “Inclusive education: Discourse and action”. British Educational Research Journal, 31, 2, 269-275.

Nkabinde, P. Z. (1997). An analysis of educational challenges in the New South Africa. Boston, University Press of America, Inc.

Nwomonoh, J. (Ed). (1998). Education and development in Africa: A contemporary survey. San Francisco: International Scholars Publications.

Nyaumwe, L., Bappoo, R., Buzuzi, G., and Kasiyandima, O. (2004). “Students’ perceptions of factors and gender differences that influence their achievement in “O” level Mathematics in Mashonaland Central Region”. The Zimbabwe Bulletin of Teacher Education, 13(1): 21-29.

Nziramasanga, C. T. (1999). Report of the presidential commission of inquiry into Education and training. Harare: Government Press.

Olatunji, B. (2001). “Make mathematics more interesting, teachers told”. Comet News: http://www.cometnews.com.ng/29062000/edu34608, retrieved 20 May 2010.

Ollerton, K. M. (2002). “Grouping Patterns in Primary Schools”. Mathematics in Schools, 31, 21-27.

Ornstein, A. C., Levine, D. U., Gutek, G. L., and Vocke, D. E. (2011). Foundations of Education, 11th ed. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Pandor, N. (2006). “Not yet there where we want to be”. Address by the Minister of Education on the release of 2006 Senior Certificate Examination Results. Cape Town: Parliament Report, 26 December 2006.

Pare, V. (2004). Exploring the conflicts involved with ability grouping. University of Connecticut: Institute of Education Sciences.

Paul, J. (2004) Introduction to the philosophies of research and criticism in education and the Social Sciences. Prentice Hall: London.

Payne, C. (2008). So much reform, so little change. Cambridge Mass: Harvard Education Press.

Ramose, M. B. (1988). A history denied: African philosophy and social organisation. Harare: College Press.

Rudowicz, C. K. C. (2003). “Academic outcomes of ability grouping among Junior high schools students in Hong Kong”. The Journal of Education, 96, 241-254.

Sefa Dei, G. J. (2010). Teaching Africa towards a Transgressive Pedagogy. Toronto: Springer.

Serequeberhan, T. (1990). African philosophy: The essential readings. New York: Paragon House.

Shizha, E. (2013). “Reclaiming our indigenous voices: The problem with post-Colonial Sub-Saharan African school curriculum”. Journal of Indigenous Social Development, Vol 2, Is, 1: pp. 1-18: http//:www.hawaii.edu/sswork/jisd, retrieved 22 November 2016.

Slaughter, T. (2009). “Creating a successful academic climate for urban students”. Techniques (January 2009), pp. 16-19.

Smith, C. (2011). “Ability in primary mathematics education: Patterns and implications”. Proceedings of the British Society for Research into learning Mathematics, 31, 91-97.

Steen, L. A. (Ed). (2001). Mathematics and democracy: The case for quantitative Literacy. New Jersey: The Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation.

Tachie, S. A. and Chireshe, R. (2013). “High failure rate in mathematics examinations in rural senior secondary schools in Mthatha District, Eastern Cape: Learners’ attributions”. Kamla-Raj: Stud Tribes Tribals, 11(1): 67-73.

Taylor, J. H. (2001). Using research in practice. London: Palgrave MacMillan.

Tella, A. (2008). “Teacher variables as predictors of academic achievement of primary school pupils’ mathematics”. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 1(1): 17-33.

The Development of Education National Report of Zimbabwe 2004. The Ministries of Education, Sport and Culture, Higher and Tertiary Education: 2004 August 47th Session of the International Conference on Education 8-11 September 2004. Geneva: Switzerland.

Thompson, A. R. (1981). Education and development in Africa. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Tough, P. (2008). Whatever it takes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

UNESCO (2001). Open file on inclusive education: http://www.unesco.org/education/educprog/sue.ed-2001/ws. Retrieved, 20 November 2016. UNESCO: Paris.

UNESCO (2015). Education for all 200-2015: Achievements and challenges. EFA Global Monitoring Report. New York: UNESCO Publishing.

UNICEF (2000). Defining quality education. New York: United Nations.

UNICEF (2007). A human rights based approach to education for all. New York: United Nations.

Verspoor, A. M. (2004). The quest for quality: towards a learning community. ADEA Newsletter: Vol. 16 No. 1.

Vlachou, A. (1999). Struggles for inclusive education. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Watson, C. (2010). Curriculum entitlement and individual differences, In D. Bell, J. Johnston, and A. M., Chater. Teaching the primary curriculum, coordinating the whole Curriculum. New York: McGraw-Hill Open University Press.

Woolman, D. C. (2001). Educational reconstruction and post-colonial curriculum Development: A Comparative Study of Four African Countries. International Education Journal Vol 2, No 5, pp 27-46: http//:www.flinders.edu.au/education/lej, retrieved 10 December 2016.

World Bank (2002). African development indicators. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

World Bank Working Paper No 128: African human development series. The World Bank: Washington D.C, 2008.

World Development. Washington: The World Bank.

Zuriff, G. E. (2007). The myths of learning disabilities, in R, Curren. (Ed). Philosophy of Education: An Anthology. Oxford: Blackwell.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v0i0.2363


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Saziso Mukomana

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2022. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).