Willy Kasuga


This is the library based paper that discusses on the influence of politics in curriculum change and innovation in Tanzania. The various definitions of curriculum, curriculum change, curriculum innovation and their differences according to different scholars have been dealt first. Then followed with a discussion on the sources of curriculum, types of curriculum change and innovation, factors (sources) of curriculum change and innovation, briefing the models of curriculum change and innovation, describing the curriculum change and innovation processes, a brief discussion on the major curriculum changes in Tanzania after independence and finally a detailed discussion on how the two jargons (change and innovation) are influenced politics. Areas where politics intervene the change and innovation discussed are: formulation of education policy and philosophy, selection of what to be taught in schools, methods to be used, language of instruction and the evaluation strategies to be employed. The paper suggests that in order for the curriculum change and innovation to be profitable in the contemporary society, there should be fairy involvement of curriculum planners and the consumers. The consumers here are the students, parents, societies and other scholars who are not involved in politics.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



curriculum, curriculum change, curriculum innovation, politics, Tanzania

Full Text:



Al’Abri, K. (2011). The impact of globalization on education policy of developing countries: Oman as an example. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal (LICEJ), 2(4), 491-502.

Bocock, J. (1994). Curriculum change and professional identity: The role of the university lecturer. In J. Bocock & D. Watson, eds, ‘Managing the University Curriculum: Making Common Cause’, Open University Press, p. 116–126.

Brock-Utne, B. (2002). The most recent developments concerning the debate on language of instruction in Tanzania. Paper presented to the NETREED conference

Bucciarelli, L. (2015). A Review of Innovation and Change Management: Stage Model and Power Influences. Universal Journal of Management, 3(1), 36-42.

Caswell, H.L. & Campbell, D. S. (1935). Curriculum development: New York: American Book Company.

Chisholm, L. (2003). The politics of curriculum review and revision in South Africa. A paper presented at the Oxford international conference on education and development, 9-11 September, 2003 at the session on culture, context and the quality of education.

Connelly, M., Fang He, M., & Phillion, J. (Eds). (2008). The SAGE handbook of curriculum and instruction. SAGE Publications, Inc.

Emesini, N.O., Ogah, M.E.U. & Eze, S.O. (2013). Curriculum change models and their suitability in the Nigerian education system. The International Research Journal, 2(3), 39-48.

Fiske, E.B. (1996). Decentralization of education politics and consensus. Washington, D.C: The World Bank.

Froyd, J., Penberthy, D. & Watson, K. (2000). Good educational experiments are not necessarily good change processes, in ‘Proc. Thirtieth ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conf.’, Vol. 2, Kansas City, MO, p. 1–6.

Gruba, P., Moffat, A., Søndergaard, H. & Zobel, J. (2004). What Drives Curriculum Change? This paper appeared at the sixth Australasian computing education conference, Conferences in research and practice in information technology, 30.

Huba, M.E., & Freed, J.E. (2000). Learner-centred assessment on college campuses: Shifting the focus from teaching to learning. Needham Heights, MA:Allyn & Bacon.

Ijaduola, K.O., Odunaike, K.O. & Ajayi, V.B. (2012). The Interplay between politics and education in Nigeria: Any symbiotic relationship? Journal of Education and Practice 3(9), 124-130.

Jansen, J. (2009). On the clash of martyrological memories. Perspectives in Education, 27 (2), 147–157.

Jones, E.A. (2002), ‘Transforming the curriculum: Preparing students for a changing world’, ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report 29(3).

Joseph, S. (2015). Curriculum politics in higher education: What educators need to do to survive. International Journal of Higher Education, 4(3), 14-20.

Kasuga, W. (2012). An investigation of the use of learner-centred approach for competence

development in biology subject for Certificate of Secondary Education in Iringa Municipality- Tanzania. Unpublished M. Ed (Science) dissertation, University of Dares Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Kira, E. & Bukagire, G. (2013). Perceptions of education stakeholders on the implications of textbook liberalisation policy in Tanzania, Journal of Education and Practice, 4 (1), 136-143.

Kitta, S. & Fussy, D. (2013). Bottlenecks in preparation of quality teachers in Tanzania. Time Journals of Arts and Educational Research, 1(5), 29-38.

Kiwia, S. (2000). A reflection on the context of educational changes in Tanzania. Department of Educational Planning and Administration. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Komba, S.C. & Mwandanji, M. (2015). Reflections on the implementation of competence-based curriculum in Tanzanian secondary schools. Journal of Education and Learning, 4(2), 73-80.

Kopweh, P.S. (2014). Curriculum development in Tanzania: an investigation of the formulation, management and implementation of the 2005 curriculum change in selected disadvantaged districts. Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of doctor of philosophy, school of education. University of Glasgow.

Kursheed, E.A. (2002). Learning through learner-centred approach. Retrieved on 3/2/2018 from

Lachiver, G. & Tardif, J. (2002). Fostering and managing curriculum change and innovation, in ‘Proc. Thirty-Second ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conf.’, Vol. 2, Boston, MA, p.7–12.

Lawrent, G. (2012). Influence of external forces on educational policy formulation and implementation in Tanzania: challenges and a way forward. GRIN Verlag. Retrieved from educational-policy-formulation-and-implementation

Levin, B. (2007). Curriculum policy and the politics of what should be learned in schools. In Connelly, F.M., He, M.F., & Phillion, J. (Eds.) Sage Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction: 7–24. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Lo, Y.G. (2017). Reconceptualizing politics: A case study of an ESP program for vocational high school students in Taiwan, Taiwan Journal of TESOL, 14(1), 37-86.

MacDonald, B. & Walker, R. (1976). Charging the curriculum. London: Open Books.

Marsh, C.J. & Wills, G. (1995). Curriculum: alternative approaches, ongoing issues. UK: Prentice Hall.

Meena, W. E. (2009). Curriculum innovation in teacher education: Exploring conceptions among Tanzanian teacher educators. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. Abo Akademi University. Finland.

Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC), (1995). Education and training policy. MoEC.

Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT), (2007). Information & communication technology (ICT) policy for basic education: ICT for improved education. Dar es Salaam: MoEVT.

Monchinski, T. (2007). The politics of education: An introduction. New York: Sense publishers.

Msabila, D.T. (2013). Dynamics of education policy changes in Tanzania: The trend, challenges and way forward: UONGOZI: Journal of Management and Development Dynamics, 24(1), 46-82.

Muneja, M.S. (2015). Tanzania textbooks, curriculum and politics: a documentary analysis. In Ololube, N. B., Kpolovie, P. J. & Makewa, L. N. (Eds). Handbook of research on enhancing teacher education with advanced instructional technologies. United States of America: Information science reference: 293-303.

Mushi, P.S.D. (2011). Capacity plunders in educational change process in the Regional Africa: the need for intercession in curriculum. International Journal on Education 56, 1-32.

Mushi, P.S.D. (2012). Tafakuri ya maboresho ya mitaala: Mkakati wa mafunzo kwa wadau. Taasisi ya Elimu Tanzania.

Ngowi, H.P. (2009). Economic development and change in Tanzania since independence: The political leadership factor. African Journal of Political Science and International Relations, 3(4), 259-267.

Njabili, A.F. (1999). Practical guide for classroom measurement and testing: The basic essentials. Dar es Salaam: Mture Publishers.

Nkyabonaki, J. (2013). The space of politics in Tanzania`s Curriculum. Scholarly Journal of Scientific Research and Essay (SJSRE), 2(7),109-117.

Nyerere, J.K. (1967). Education for self-reliance. Dar es Salaam: Government Press.

Nzima, I. (2016). Competence-based curriculum (CBC) in Tanzania: Tutors’ understanding and their instructional practices. Doctoral dissertation. Linnaeus University: Linnaeus University Press.

Osaki, K.M., & Pendaeli, J. (1991). Curriculum development for teacher education. Dar es Salaam: Dar es Salaam University Press.

Paulo, A. & Tilya, F. (2014). The 2005 secondary school curriculum changes in Tanzania: Disjunction between policy and practice in its implementation. Journal of Education and Practice, 5 (35), 114-123.

Phillips, J.A. & Hawthorne, R. (1978). Political dimension of curriculum decision making. Educational leadership, 35(5), 55-59.

Schiro, M. (2013). Curriculum theory: Conflicting visions and enduring concerns (2nd ed). Thousand Oaks, Califonia. SAGE

Shen, Y. (2008). The effect of changes and innovation on educational improvement. International Education Studies, 1 (3), 73-77.

Sifuna, D.N., Malekela, G.A. & Mwiria, K. (1990). Education and work: A review of research reports of the first cohort of awardees of the Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania educational research awards (KUTERA) scheme. Nairobi.

Taba, H. (1962). Curriculum development: Theory and practice. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Tanner, D. and Tanner, L.N. (1995). Curriculum development (3rded.). New York: Macmillan.

Tidd, J. & Bessant, J. (2009). Managing innovation: Integrating technological, market and organisational change (4th ed). Chichester: Wiley.

Tyler, R.W. (1949). Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. University of Chicago Press.

UNESCO (2002). Taking up the challenges of education in Africa, from commitment to

actions. MINEDAF.

Vuzo, M. (2010). Exclusion through language: A reflection on classroom discourse in Tanzanian secondary schools. Papers in Education and Development, 29, 14-36.

Waks, L.J. (2003). How Globalization Can Cause Fundamental Curriculum Change: An American Perspective. Journal of Educational Change, 4(4), 383-418.

White, J. (Ed). (2004). Shaping a curriculum. In rethinking the school curriculum: Values, aims and purpose. London: Routledge. 0765412301

Weimer, M. (2002). Learner-centred teaching: Five key changes to practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved on.

Young, J., Levin, B., & Wallin, D. (2007). Understanding Canadian schools (4th ed.). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Nelson Thomson

Zais, R.S. (1976).Curriculum: Principles and foundations. New York: Harper & Row.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Willy Kasuga

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2022. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).