Gülten Koşar, Hasan Bedir


This study aims at investigating the impact of brain-based learning on the retention of English language knowledge amongst young adult learners. The participants were subjected to an intervention in brain-based learning principles for approximately four and a half months. The results of the proficiency exams administered at the beginning of and following the intervention were analysed in an effort to explore whether brain-based learning intervention exerts impact on the improvement of participants’ proficiency in English. With a view to examining knowledge retention, the results of the retention exam administered six months after the post-proficiency exam were analysed. An interview was conducted both after the post-proficiency and the retention exam to gain insights into the participants’ views of the brain-based learning intervention. The findings attained from the analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data yield that establishing a learning environment compatible with brain-based learning principles enables knowledge retention.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



English language learning, brain-based learning, knowledge retention, young adult learners

Full Text:



Allison E S, 2014. Memory retention in second language acquisition and instruction: Insights from literature and research. The IAFOR Journal of Language Learning, 1(1), 1-13.

Avcı D E, Yağbasan R, 2010. The views of students related to brain-based learning. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 18(1),1-18.

Baş G, 2010. Effects of brain based learning on students’ achievement levels and attitudes towards English lesson. Elementary Education Online, 9(2), 88-507.

Bellah K A, Robinson J S, Kaufman E K, Akers C, Wittler H, Martindale L, 2008. Brain-based learning: A synthesis of research. NACTA Journal, 15-22.

Bello D M, 2007. The effect of brain-based learning with teacher training in division and fractions in fifth grade students of a private school. PhD Thesis, Capella University.

Brown D M, 2003. Learner-centered conditions that ensure students' success in learning. Education, 124, 99-104.

Burkett L, 2014. Brain-based learning: A study on how teachers implement strategies in the traditional classroom. PhD Thesis, Capella University.

Cowan W, 2009. Brain-based reading model for students who struggle with reading. PhD Thesis, Walden University.

Caine R N, Caine G, 1994. Making connections: Teaching and the human brain, New York: Innovative Learning Publications.

Caine R N, Caine G, 2000. 12 brain/mind natural learning principles. Retrieved February 12, 2014, from

Domjan M, 1998. The principles of learning and behaviour, Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Eskiturk M, 2009. The effect of cooperative learning activities which take the base critical thinking ability to academic success in social science lesson. MA Thesis. Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University.

Flaharty C, 1985. Animal learning and cognition, New York: Knopf.

Gordon W C, 1989. Learning and Memory, Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Harrington C M, Gabert-Quillen C A, 2015. Syllabus length and use of images: An empirical investigation of student perceptions. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology, 1, 235–243.

Hoge P T, 2002. The integration of brain-based learning and literacy acquisition. PhD Thesis, Georgia State University.

Houston J P, 2001. Fundamentals of learning and memory, 4th ed, Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.

Huang H Y, 2006. Brain-based strategies used to teach English as a foreign language (EFL) in Taiwan high schools, colleges, and universities. PhD Thesis, Spalding University.

Korkmaz T S, Tay B, 2016. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Method and Systematic Teaching on Students’ Achievement and Retention of Knowledge in Social Studies Lesson. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 66.

Lucas R W, 2003. The creative training idea book, New York: American Management Association.

Martin K E, 2006. Perceptions of brain based learning from principals in the Bulloch county school system. PhD Thesis, Union Institute & University, Georgia.

McCombs B L, 1997. Self-assessment and reflection: Tools for promoting teacher changes toward learner-centered practices. National Association of Secondary School Principals. NASSP Bulletin, 81, 1-14.

McNamee M M, 2011. The impact of brain-based instruction on reading achievement in a second-grade classroom, PhD Thesis, Walden University.

Milambiling J, 2001. More than talk: A proposal for TESOL teacher education. TESOL, 10, 3-4.

Moore K D, 2008. Effective instructional strategies: From theory to practice, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Muscella M W, 2014. Educators’ perceptions of brain-based learning instruction within the diverse middle school inclusive classroom, PhD Thesis, North Central University.

Rehman A U, 2011. Effectiveness of brain-based learning method and conventional method in the teaching of mathematics at secondary level in Pakistan: An experimental study, PhD Thesis, International Islamic University.

Richmond A S, Boysen G A, Gurung R A R, Tazeau Y N, Meyers S A, Sciutto M J, 2014. Aspirational model teaching criteria for psychology. Teaching of Psychology, 41, 281–295, doi:10.1177/0098628314549699

Richmond A S, Boysen G A, Gurung R A R, 2016a. The model teacher: An evidence-based guide for college and university teaching, New York: Routledge.

Richmond A S, Morgan R K, Slattery J, Venzke B, 2013. How learner-centered are project syllabus syllabi? Poster presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Honolulu, HI.

Saleh S, 2011. The effectiveness of the brain based teaching approach in dealing with problems of form four students conceptual understanding of Newtonian physics. Asia Pacific Journal of Educators and Education, 26(1), 91-106.

Saville B K, Zinn T E, Brown A R, Marchuk K A, 2010. Syllabus detail and students’ perceptions of teacher effectiveness. Teaching of Psychology, 37, 186–189.

Schmidt R, 2001. Attention. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language

instruction (pp. 3-33), Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Slavin R E, (2011). Instruction Based on Cooperative Learning. In R. E. Mayer & P. A. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Learning and Instruction (pp. 344-360), New York: Taylor & Francis.

Wachob D A, 2012. Public school teachers’ knowledge, perception and implementation of brain-based learning practices, PhD Thesis, University of Pennsylvania, Indiana.

Webb N M, 2008. Learning in small groups. In T. L. Good (Ed.), 21st Century education: A reference handbook (pp. 203-211), Los Angeles: Sage.

Weimer C, 2007. Engaged learning through the use of brain-based teaching: A case study of eight middle school classrooms, PhD Thesis, Northern Illinois University.

Weinberger E, McCombs B L, 2001. The Impact of Learner-Centered Practices on the Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes of Upper Elementary and Middle School Students. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, Seattle.

Tran V D, 2014. The effects of cooperative learning on the academic achievement and knowledge retention. International Journal of Higher Education, 3(2), 131-140



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Gülten Koşar, Hasan Bedir

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).