Evans Chazireni, Tanyaradzwa Chigonda


Dam construction projects can cause significant socio-economic impacts on the surrounding communities. The impacts can be both positive and negative. The current study sought to examine the socio-economic impacts of the construction of Tokwe Mukosi Dam to the surrounding communities. Research methods included key informant interviews and a questionnaire survey. The results from the study showed that Tokwe Mukosi Dam has both positive and negative impacts on communities around the dam. It emerged from the study that the positive socio-economic impacts of the construction of Tokwe Mukosi Dam included: increased availability of fish; water provision for livestock production, irrigation and domestic purposes; and tourism development and associated income enhancement. On the other end, there were also negative impacts of dam construction revealed by the current study including: drowning of people; attack of people and livestock by crocodiles; displacement of people; and increased incidences of water-borne and vector-borne diseases. Various recommendations are suggested to minimise the negative impacts of Tokwe Mukosi Dam to local communities and enhance the positive impacts including: awareness programmes to minimise dangers of drowning of people and attacks by crocodiles; health care interventions by the government and other stakeholders to prevent or minimize water-borne diseases and vectors; development of tourist facilities by locals in partnership with other entities to enhance benefits from tourism; training of locals in aquaculture so as to increase benefits from fish resources; and the setting up of an Integrated Environmental Management Plan to enhance the long term conservation and sustainable utilisation of the dam and its resources.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



dam construction, socio-economic impacts, water-borne diseases, dietary protein, irrigation

Full Text:



Adams, W.M. (1992) Wasting the rain: Rivers, people and planning in Africa, Earthscan Publications, London.

Auret, D. (1990) A Decade of Development: Zimbabwe 1980-1990, Mambo Press, Gweru.

Bond, P. & Manyanya, M. (2002) Zimbabwe’s Plunge: Exhausted Nationalism, Neoliberalism and the search for Social Justice, Weaver Press Limited, Harare.

Brokensha, D. & Scudder, T. (1968) ‘Resettlement’, In Rubin, N. and Warren, W.M. (Eds.) Dams in Africa: An Inter-disciplinary Study of Man-made Lakes in Africa, pp. 20-62, Frank Cass and Company Limited, London.

Canter, L. (1985) Environmental Impact of Water Resources Projects, Lewis Publishers, Michigan.

Chenje, M., Sola, L. and Paleczny, D. (1998) The State of Zimbabwe’s Environment 1998, Ministry of Mines, Environment and Tourism, Harare.

Chigonda, T. and Chazireni, E. (2018) Water Supply and Sanitation in Zimbabwe’s Resettlement Areas: A Case Study Approach. European Journal of Social Sciences Studies 2(11): 139-151.

Clarke, R. (1991) Water: The International Crisis, Earthscan Publications Limited, London.

Mazvimavi, D. (2010). ‘Climate Change, Water Availability and Supply’, In Kotecha, P. (Ed.) Climate Change, Adaptation and Higher Education: Securing our Future: SARUA Leadership Dialogue Series Volume 2 Number 4, pp. 81-100, SARUA, Wits.

Mudzengi, B.K. (2012). An Assessment of the Socio-Economic Impacts of the Construction of Tokwe Mukosi Dam in the Mazungunye Area: Bikita District of Zimbabwe, Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 1-17.

Newson, M. (1997) Land, Water and development: Sustainable Management of river basin systems, Frank Cass and Company, London.

Payne, A. (2014) Corruption in Tokwe- Mukosi dam in Zimbabwe. Available at, Accessed on 27 January 2018.

Scudder, T. (2005) The Future of Large Dams: dealing with Social, Environmental, Institutional and Political Costs, Earthscan, London.

Tapfumaneyi, R. (2014) Tokwe Mukosi: The untold positive side, Available at Accessed on 27 January 2018.


Copyright (c) 2018 Evans Chazireni, Tanyaradzwa Chigonda

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2016 - 2023. European Journal Of Social Sciences Studies (ISSN 2501-8590) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.


Hit counter