Tuyizere Gratien, Murwanashyaka Prosper, Donald Bikorimana, Elysee Hitayezu


In the context of EFL teaching and learning processes, the study sought to: (1) characterize the form of code switching; (2) characterize the causative factors of code switching; (3) characterize the form of code mixing; and (4) characterize the causative factors of code mixing (a sociolinguistic analysis). Year two semester two for students pursuing Bachelor of Arts with Education in Kibogora Polytechnic took part in this study. Data cards and recording devices were employed as research instruments. Recording and transcription techniques are used in the data collection process. The study's findings showed that code-switching occurs in EFL teaching and learning processes when students convert from Kinyarwanda to English (external form) and from English to Kinyarwanda (internal form). On the other hand, word, phrase, and sentence-level code mixing occurs. The speaker's objectives and purpose, the speech environment, the presence of a third party, changing the subject, and the speaker's personality are the elements that cause code-switching. In the meantime, limited code usage, habits, function and purpose, and elements about speakers' multilingualism are what lead to code-mixing.


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EFL instruction and learning, code-mixing, code-switching, causative factors

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