Mohd Fayuti bin Ismail, Chin Jack Tai, Syarifah Norhidayah binti Syed Othman, Yong Wei Yuan, Kee Yong Yee, Kumaran Kanapathipillai


This study investigates the critical elements of viral marketing toward consumers' purchasing intention in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Five perceived viral marketing elements were identified and tested on their relationship to consumers' purchase intentions. The five key factors are perceived informativeness, entertainment, irritation, source credibility, and incentive. To gather and analyse the data related to this study, questionnaires were distributed through the online google platform to the consumers in Klang Valley. A total of 434 respondents contributed to the discussion and conclusion of this study. These respondents are frequent internet users who are familiar with viral marketing. Therefore, it increased the research's credibility. Findings obtained from this study indicated that four key elements of viral marketing, perceived informativeness, perceived entertainment, perceived source credibility, and perceived incentives, are significant and display a positive relationship to consumers' purchasing intention. In contrast, this study illustrated that perceived irritation is not significant for consumers' purchase intentions, indicating that the consumers in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, do not perceive the advertising messages targeted at them causes any annoyance but as helpful during their purchase intention.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


perceived informativeness, perceived entertainment, perceived irritation, perceived source credibility, perceived incentives, viral marketing, consumers’ purchasing intention

Full Text:



Ahmad, M., & Lasi, M. (2020). The attitudes on consumer perception towards viral marketing: A study on Foodpanda food delivery in Malaysia. International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation, 7(9), 251-255.

Akdim, K. (2021). The influence of eWOM. Analyzing its characteristics and consequences, and future research lines La influencia de eWOM. Retrieved from: https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/SJME-10-2020-0186/full/html

Bauer, H. H., Barnes, S. J., Reichardt, T. & Neumann, M. M. (2005). Driving customer acceptance of mobile marketing: A theoretical framework and empirical study. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 6, (3), 181- 192.

Bento, M., Martinez, L. M. & Martinez, L. F. (2018). Brand engagement and search for brands on social media: Comparing generations X and Y in Portugal. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 43, 234-241.

Bevan-Dye, A. L. (2020). Antecedents of generation Y consumers’ usage frequency of online consumer reviews. Retrieved from: https://doi/10.1108/SJME-12-20190102/full/html#sec001

Blanco, C. F., Blasco, M. G., & Azorin, I. I. (2010). Entertainment and informativeness as precursory factors of successful mobile advertising messages. Communications of the IBIMA, 1-11.

Bondos, I., & Lipowski, M. (2018). The influence of perceived media richness of marketing channels on online channel usage: Intergenerational differences. Retrieved from: https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/BJM-04-2017-0127/full/html

Chakraborty, U. (2019). The impact of source credible online reviews on purchase intention: The mediating roles of brand equity dimensions. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 13(2), 142-161. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1108/JRIM-06-2018-0080

Chinna, K. & Yuen, C. W. (2015). Statistical Analysis Using SPSS. (2nd ed.). Pearson Malaysia.

Daugherty, T., Lagan, K., Chu, S. & Huang, S. (2007). Understanding customer perceptions of advertising: A theoretical framework of attitude and confidence. The University of Texas at Austin.

Dong, X., Chang, Y., Liang, S. & Fan, X. (2018). How online media synergy influences consumers’ purchase intention: A perspective from broadcast and interactive media. Internet Research, 28(4), 946-964. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1108/IntR-08-2017-0298

DOSM. (2021). Current population estimates, Malaysia, 2021. Department of Statistics Malaysia. Retrieved from: http://dosm.gov.my

Getcraft. (2020). Malaysia digital and content marketing report 2018. Marketing Craft. Retrieved from: https://marketingcraft.getcraft.com/en-articles/malaysia-digital-and-content-marketing-report-2018.

Gravetter, F. & Wallnau, L. (2014). Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioural Sciences. (8th ed.), Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Gulati, N., Guru, P., & Goyal, I. (2018). Perceived informativeness of viral marketing messages: A case study of Panjab University. Gyan Management, 12(2), 29-39.

Haghirian, P., Madlberger, M., & Tanuskova, A. (2005). Increasing advertising value of mobile marketing- an empirical study of antecedents. Proceedings of 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Big Island, HI, USA.

Hanley, M., Becker, M., & Martinsen J. (2006). Factors influencing mobile advertising acceptance: will incentives motivate college students to accept mobile advertisements? International Journal of Mobile Marketing, 1(1), 50-58.

Iddris, F. (2006). Mobile advertising in B2C marketing. Master Thesis, Continuation Courses, Business Administration and Social Sciences, Lulea, 103-121.

Intelligence, B. I. (2016). The Internet of Everything. Retrieved from: https://www.iotjournaal.nl/wpcontent/uploads/2017/02/internetofeverything_2016.

Isabella, G., & Vieira, V. A. (2020). The effect of facial expression on emotional contagion and product evaluation in print advertising. RAUSP Management Journal, 55(3), 375-391.

Janes, S. (2015). Viral marketing strategies in Hollywood cinema. In besides the screen. Palgrave Macmillan, London, 87-104.

Jonsson, A., & Darnéus Ekeroth, J. (2021). The effectiveness of personalised advertising: An exploratory study on personalised advertising done on Facebook. (Dissertation). Retrieved from: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-54413

Kanapathipillai, K. (2021). The influence of social media technology with reference to Facebook on work performance: Organisational framework as mediator. European Journal of Social Sciences Studies, 6(5). 92-127. Retrieved from: https://oapub.org/soc/index.php/EJSSS/article/view/1116

Kanapathipillai, K., & Kumaran, S. (2022). The mediating effect of relationship marketing strategy between digital marketing strategy and consumers’ purchase decisions in the automotive industry in Malaysia. European Journal of Management and Marketing Studies, 7(2), 1-27. Retrieved from:

Kim, S. J., & Masłowska, E., & Malthouse, E. (2017). Understanding the effects of different review features on purchase probability. International Journal of Advertising, 37. 1-25.

Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational & Psychological Measurement.

Kumar, V., Shareef, M., Kumar, U., & Persaud, A. (2016). Promotional marketing through mobile phone SMS: a cross-cultural examination of consumer acceptance. Transnational Corporations Review. 8. 1-16. Retrieved from: http://doi.10.1080/19186444.2016.1162473.

Ler, S.W. (2014). The attitudes of consumers towards viral marketing in Malaysia. University of Tunku Abdul Rahman. Retrieved from: http://eprints.utar.edu.my/id/eprint/1297

Ling, K., Piew, T., & Chai, L. (2010). The determinants of consumers’ attitude toward advertising. Canadian Social Science, 6(4), 114-126.

Mccarthy, M. T. (2017). The semantic web and its entanglements. Science, Technology and Society, 22(1), 21-37.

Mccune, L. (2017). Online consumers want emotional reviews—just not too emotional. Retrieved from: https://munewsarchives.missouri.edu/news-releases/2017/1024-online-consumers-want-emotional-reviews-just-not-too-emotional/

Müller, J. (2021). Malaysia: Internet users age group distribution 2020. Statista. Retrieved from: https://www.statista.com/statistics

Muzaffar, F., & Kamran, S. (2011). SMS advertising: youth attitude towards perceived informativeness, irritation and credibility. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(1), 230-245.

Nguyen, C., & Nguyen, D. (2020). A study of factors affecting brand awareness in the context of viral marketing in Vietnam. SSRN Electronic Journal. 5401-5411. 10.2139/ssrn.3906104.

Oh, L. & Xu, H. (2003): Effects of multimedia on mobile customer behavior: an empirical study of location-aware advertising. In Proceedings of Twenty-Forth International Conference on Information Systems. 679-691.

Ohanian, R. (1990). Construction and validation of a scale to measure celebrity endorsers' perceived expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiveness. Journal of Advertising, 19(3), 39 - 52.

Palka, W., Pousttchi, K., & Wiedemann, D. G. (2009). Mobile word-of-mouth – A grounded theory of mobile viral marketing. Journal of Information Technology, 24(2), 172-185. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1057/jit.2008.37

Pauwels. (2017). When it comes to social media, consumers trust each other, not big brands. PHYS. Retrieved from: https://phys.org/news/2017-09-social-media-consumers-big-brands.html

Pietz, M., Storbacka, R., & Muller, J. (2007). Driving advertising into mobile medium, study of customer attitudes towards mobile advertising and factors affecting on them. Swedish University Essays, 12-31

Pitman, J. (2019). How to monitor and respond to online reviews. Retrieved from: http://www.brightlocal.com/learn/how-to-monitor-and-respond-to-online.

Saadeghvaziri, F., & Hosseini, H. K. (2011). Mobile advertising: An investigation of factors creating positive attitude in Iranian consumers. African Journal of Business Management, 5(2), 394-404.

Sharma, R., & Kaur, B. (2019). E-mail viral marketing: modelling the determinants of creation of “viral infection”. Management Decision, 58(1), 112-128.

Statista, (2021). Active social media users as a percentage of the total population in Malaysia from 2016 to 2021. Retrieved from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/883712/malaysia-social-media-penetration/

Subramanian, K. (2017). Role of incentives in shaping consumer mindset. International Journal of Trend in Research and Development. 4. 2394-9333.

Tsang, M. M., Ho, S. H., & Liang, T. P. (2004). Customer attitudes toward mobile advertising: An empirical study. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 8(3), 65-78.

Visser, P. S., Krosnick, J. A., Marquette, J., & Curtin, M. (1996). Mail surveys for election forecasting? An evaluation of the Colombia Dispatch Poll. Public Opin Q. 60, 181-227.

Waldt, V. Rebello, T. & Brown, W. (2009). Attitudes of young consumers towards SMS advertising. African Journal of Business Management, 3, 444-452.

Wang, C., Zhang, P., Choi, R., & DEredita, M. (2002). Understanding consumers’ attitude toward advertising. Eighth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Retrieved from: http://melody.syr.edu/hci/amcis02_minitrack/RIP/Wang.pdf

Wang, S., & Lan, N. T. N. (2018). A Study on the Attitude of Customer towards Viral Video Advertising on Social Media: A Case Study in Viet Nam. The International Journal of Engineering and Science, 7(6), 54-60.

Wei, Y. P., & P H Long, P.H. (2015). Consumers’ perception of mobile social media advertising: the case of casual – Dining restaurants. Advances in Information Sciences and Service Sciences (AISS) 7(1).

Wu, R., Wang, G. & Yan, L. (2020). The effects of online store informativeness and entertainment on consumers’ approach behaviors: Empirical evidence from China. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 32(6), 1327-1342.

Yousra, B., Ahmed, T., & Hakim, M. (2019). Drivers of SMS advertising acceptance: A mixed-methods approach. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 13(1), 96–118. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1108/JRIM-02-2018-0033

Zernigah, K. I., & Sohail, K. (2012). Consumers' attitudes towards viral marketing in Pakistan. Management & Marketing Challenges for the Knowledge Society, 7(4), 645-662.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejsss.v7i4.1259

Copyright (c) 2022 Mohd Fayuti bin Ismail, Chin Jack Tai, Syarifah Norhidayah binti Syed Othman, Yong Wei Yuan, Kee Yong Yee, Kumaran Kanapathipillai

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2016 - 2023. European Journal Of Social Sciences Studies (ISSN 2501-8590) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.


Hit counter