Chinyere Anthonia Ekwelundu


This study examined the effect of the Assertiveness Training technique on bullying behaviour of secondary school students in Anambra State. Two research questions guided the study, while two null hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance. The study adopted a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent pre-test and post-test, control group design. A sample of 94 student bullies made up 54 males and 40 females were purposively drawn from two schools with the highest number of bullies and used for the study. Students Bullying Behaviour Identification Scale (SBBIS) and Students Bullying Behaviour Questionnaire (SBBQ) were adapted as instruments for data collection. The reliability of the instruments was established using Cronbach Alpha and with coefficients of 0.88 for SBBQ and 0.96 for SBBIS. SBBIS was administered two weeks before the commencement of the treatment aimed at identifying and screening of bullies while SBBQ was used for the pretesting and post-testing for the three groups. Mean was used to answer research questions, while the null hypotheses were tested using Analysis of Co-Variance (ANCOVA). The findings of the study revealed that the Assertiveness Training technique was effective in reducing bullying behaviours of secondary school students. The findings equally indicated that the difference in the effectiveness of the Assertiveness Training technique on bullying behaviours of male and female secondary school students was not significant. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended among others that assertiveness training techniques should be used by guidance counsellors working in secondary schools should modify behaviours of students with bullying behaviour.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


effect, assertiveness training technique, bullying behaviour, secondary school, students

Full Text:



Aderanti, R. A., & Hassan, T. (2011). Differential effectiveness of cognitive restructuring and self-management in the treatment of adolescents. The Romanian Journal of Psychology, Psychotherapy and Neuroscience,1(1),193 -217.

Boket, E. G., Bahrami, M., Kolyaie, L., & Hosseini, S. A. (2015). The effect of assertiveness skills training on reduction of emotional victimization of female high school students in Iran. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies, 690–699. doi: 10.3126/ijls.v9i4.12679

Cook, C. R., Williams, K. R., Guerra, N. G., Kim, T. E., & Sadek, S. (2010). Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: A meta analytic investigation. School Psychology Quarterly, 25 (2), 65-83.

Eweniyi, G., Adeoye, A. O., Raheem, A. I., & Anwanane, B. B. (2013). Influence of class types and home background and the efficacy of cognitive self-instruction on bullying behaviour of Nigerian secondary school students. American Based Research Journal, 2(5), 513-524

Herman, H., Nursshal, D., & Novrianda, D. (2020). Effect of assertiveness training on bullying in junior high school in Padang, Indonesia. Jurnal Kaperawatan Soedriman, 15(1), 7-14.

Ikediashi, N. N., & Akande, A. J. (2015). Anti-social behaviours among Nigerian adolescents.

Keliat, B. A., Tololiu, T. A., Daulima, N. H. C., & Erawati, E. (2015). Effectiveness of assertive training of bullying prevention among adolescents in West Java Indonesia. International Journal of Nursing, 2(1), 128–134. https://doi.org/10.15640/ijn.v2n1a14

Keser I, Barlas G (2016). An Analysis of Assertiveness Training's Effect on Disabled Adolescents' Self-Esteem and Assertiveness Skills. J. Nurs. Sci. 2(5):33-38

Lee K. (2017). How to prevent and stop bullying in schools. Retrieved from http://www.verywell.com

Lee, T.-Y., Chang, S.-C., Chu, H., Yang, C.-Y., Ou, K.-L., Chung, M.-H., & Chou, K.-R. (2013). The effects of assertiveness training in patients with schizophrenia: A randomized, single-blind, controlled study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69, 2549–2559.

Lohmann, C. R. (2014). The bullying workbook for teens, child development; teen bullying: A cognitive behavioural therapy approach. Retrieved on 21st January, 2015 from http://m.psychologytoday.com.

Michelle, R. (2017). Assertiveness training. Encyclopedia of mental disorder forum. Advameg, retrieved from Inc. http://www.minddisorders.com/A-Br/Assertivenesstraining.html

Minnesota Department of Education. (2013). Bullying and cyber-bullying. Roseville, MN. Retrieved from http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/StuSuc/SafeSch/

Mitsopoulou, E., & Giovazolias, T. (2013). The relationship between perceived parental bonding and bullying: The mediating role of empathy. The European Journal of Counselling Psychology, 2(1), 36-52.

Ohanaka, B. I., & Okobia, E. O. (2017). Bullying interventions in secondary schools in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria: Implications for school authorities and guidance counsellors. Ibom Journal of Counselling, 6(1), 247-261.

Mugove, K. (2017). Causes of bullying in boarding high schools in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 7 (12), 652-657. ISSN 2250-3153

Shahriar, K., Zhicheng, P. X., & Yu, Z. (2015). The impact of bullying on educational performance in Ghana: A bias-reducing matching approach. Agricultural & Applied Economics Association and Western Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, 1-30. https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/205409

Superville, D. (2011). Obama to victims: I know what it’s like. Retrieved on 10th March 2011, from http://www.havredailynews.com/cms/news/story-220651.html.

Tambawal, M. U., & Umar, R. M. (2017). Bullying and its effects on academic performance of secondary school students In Nigeria: Implications for counselling. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research on Arts, Humanities & Education, 3(2), 1-7.

Ugwu, C. J., & Olatunbosun, I. (2016). Effect of cognitive behaviour therapy on reducing bullying on secondary school students in Ikwerre Local Government Area of River State, Nigeria. The Counsellor, 35(1&2), 174-183.

Vaillancourt, T., Hymel, S., & McDougall, P. (2013). The biological underpinnings of peer victimization: Understanding why and how the effects of bullying can last a lifetime. Theory into Practice, 52(4), 241-248.

Van der Plog, R., Steglich, C., Salmivalli, C., & Veenstra, R. (2015). The intensity of victimization: associations with children’s psychological well-being and social standing in the classroom. PloS ONE. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141490.

Wolpe, J. (1958). Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejsss.v7i2.1230

Copyright (c) 2022 Chinyere Anthonia Ekwelundu

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2016 - 2023. European Journal Of Social Sciences Studies (ISSN 2501-8590) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.


Hit counter