Naomi Gaitho


Global leadership is one of the social issues in the contemporary business environment linked with worldviews and value systems. The term worldview encompasses a set of beliefs, values, and moral codes that influence various social aspects, including how to deal with issues in society and the interpretation of the role of individuals in society. This research examines both worldviews and value systems in the context of global leadership. In particular, the paper explores various types of worldviews, including relativism. The study also examines worldviews based on cultural theory. This theory identifies four idealized ways of viewing the world and hypothesizes that people are likely to draw from one of the four cosmologies when developing arguments and advocating for change. These worldviews are egalitarian, hierarchical, individualist, and fatalist. In terms of value systems, the paper explores the definition and characteristic of value systems. The research also explores two value systems: individualism and collectivism. Overall, the research demonstrates that managers cannot afford to ignore the significance of both worldviews and value systems in the current business environment.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


prevailing worldviews, value systems, culture and identity

Full Text:



Arnett, R. C. (2017). Cultural Relativism and Cultural Universalism. The International Encyclopedia of Intercultural Communication, 1-9.

Auxier, W. R. (2015). A Comparison of Worldviews of Business Leaders from Disparate Geographic Cultures. The Journal of Values-Based Leadership, 8(2), 8.

Baydur, I. (2017). Worker Selection, Hiring, and Vacancies. American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 9(1), 88-127.

BBC News (2019). Kenyan airport strike strands hundreds. [online] BBC News. Available at: [Accessed 19 Mar. 2020].

Bertram-Troost, G., Versteegt, I., Van der Kooij, J., Van Nes, I., & Miedema, S. (2018). Beyond the split between formal school identity and teachers’ personal worldviews: Towards an inclusive (Christian) school identity. Education Sciences, 8(4), 208.

Brewer, M. B., & Chen, Y. R. (2007). Where (who) are collectives in collectivism? Toward conceptual clarification of individualism and collectivism. Psychological review, 114(1), 133.

Burleson, B. R., & Mortenson, S. R. (2003). Explaining cultural differences in evaluations of emotional support behaviors: Exploring the mediating influences of value systems and interaction goals. Communication Research, 30(2), 113-146.

Calmfors, L., & Horn, H. (2016). Trade Unions, Wage Formation and Macroeconomic Stability. Springer.

Cherry, T. L., McEvoy, D. M., & Sælen, H. (2017). Conditional cooperation and cultural worldviews. Economics Letters, 158, 51-53.

Choi, J. (2016). Pluralism, relativism, and postmodernism in the healthcare chaplaincy and the evangelical chaplain (Doctoral dissertation, Biola University).

Chung, C. (2015). The Conceptualization of Global Integration and Local Responsiveness in International HRM Research: A Review and Directions for Future Research. In Discussion Paper JHD-2015-02. Henley Business School.

Cohen, D. J., & Ahn, M. (2016). A subjective utilitarian theory of moral judgment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(10), 1359.

Collier‐Spruel, L., Hawkins, A., Jayawickreme, E., Fleeson, W., & Furr, R. M. (2019). Relativism or tolerance? Defining, assessing, connecting, and distinguishing two moral personality features with prominent roles in modern societies. Journal of personality, 87(6), 1170-1188.

Crate, S. A., & Nuttall, M. (2016). Anthropology and Climate Change: from actions to transformations. London: Routledge.

Dobbelaere, S., Kiyota, K., & Mairesse, J. (2015). Product and labor market imperfections and scale economies: Micro-evidence on France, Japan and the Netherlands. Journal of Comparative Economics, 43(2), 290-322.

Elliott, L. (2019). World's 26 richest people own as much as poorest 50%, says Oxfam. Retrieved 18 March 2020, from

Farndale, E., Brewster, C., Ligthart, P., & Poutsma, E. (2017). The effects of market economy type and foreign MNE subsidiaries on the convergence and divergence of HRM. Journal of International Business Studies, 48(9), 1065-1086.

Hedlund-de Witt, A. (2013). Worldviews and their significance for the global sustainable development debate. Environmental Ethics, 35(2), 133-162.

Johnson, B. B., Swedlow, B., & Mayorga, M. W. (2019). Cultural theory and cultural cognition theory survey measures: confirmatory factoring and predictive validity of factor scores for judged risk. Journal of Risk Research, 1-24.

Kamoche, K., Siebers, L. Q., Mamman, A., & Newenham-Kahindi, A. (2015). The dynamics of managing people in the diverse cultural and institutional context of Africa. Personnel Review, 44(3), 330-345.

Keller, D. R. (2019). Realism or Relativism?. In Ecology and Justice—Citizenship in Biotic Communities (pp. 111-131). Springer, Cham.

Koltko-Rivera, M. E. (2004). The psychology of worldviews. Review of general psychology, 8(1), 3-58.

Lester, R. A. (2015). As unions mature: An analysis of the evolution of American unionism. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Matthews, L. C., & Thakkar, B. (2012). The impact of globalization on cross-cultural communication. Globalization-education and management agendas, 325-340.

McDonnell, A., Boyle, B., Bartram, T., Stanton, P., & Burgess, J. (2015). Similarity or variation? Employee representation and consultation approaches amongst liberal market economy multinationals. Relations Industrielles/Industrial Relations, 70(4), 645-670.

McEvoy, J., Gilbertz, S. J., Anderson, M. B., Ormerod, K. J., & Bergmann, N. T. (2017). Cultural theory of risk as a heuristic for understanding perceptions of oil and gas development in Eastern Montana, USA. The extractive industries and society, 4(4), 852-859.

Mobley, W., Wang, Y. & Li. M. (2009). Advances in global leadership. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.

Mohanraj, S. G., & Sreejana, S. (2018). Egalitarian Worldview: The Fundamental Deliberation of Nature in the Poems of WS Merwin. Language in India, 18(1).

Nilsson, A. (2013). The psychology of worldviews: Toward a non-reductive science of personality. Lund University.

Nohria N. & Khurana R. (2010). Handbook of Leadership Theory and Practice. Massachusetts: Harvard Business Press.

Pinillos, M. J., & Reyes, L. (2011). Relationship between individualist–collectivist culture and entrepreneurial activity: evidence from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data. Small Business Economics, 37(1), 23-37.

Pishghadam, R., Jajarmi, H., & Shayesteh, S. (2016). Conceptualizing sensory relativism in light of emotioncy: A movement beyond linguistic relativism. International Journal of Society, Culture & Language, 4(2), 11-21.

Raeff, C., Greenfield, P. M., & Quiroz, B. (2000). Conceptualizing interpersonal relationships in the cultural contexts of individualism and collectivism. New directions for child and adolescent development, 2000(87), 59-74.

Ravenhill, J. (2017). Global political economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rhodes, C. J. (2017). US withdrawal from the COP21 Paris Climate Change Agreement, and its possible implications. Science progress, 100(4), 411-419.

Sanders, K., & Yang, H. (2016). The HRM process approach: The influence of employees’ attribution to explain the HRM‐performance relationship. Human Resource Management, 55(2), 201-217.

Smith, A., & Hume, E. C. (2005). Linking culture and ethics: A comparison of accountants’ ethical belief systems in the individualism/collectivism and power distance contexts. Journal of Business Ethics, 62(3), 209-220.

Sparrow, P., Brewster, C., & Chung, C. (2016). Globalizing human resource management. London: Routledge.

Steven, R. (2016). Japan and the new world order: global investments, trade and finance. New York: Springer.

The Conversation (2019). New styles of strikes and protest are emerging in the UK. [online] The Conversation. Available at: [Accessed 19 Mar. 2020].

Townley, B. (2014). Selection and appraisal: reconstituting. New Perspectives on Human Resource Management (Routledge Revivals), 92.

Vaisey, S., & Lizardo, O. (2010). Can cultural worldviews influence network composition?. Social Forces, 88(4), 1595-1618.

Watanabe, H. R. (2015). The struggle for revitalisation by Japanese labour unions: Worker organising after labour-market deregulation. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 45(3), 510-530.

Watkins, D., & Brook, Y. (2016). Equal is Unfair: America's Misguided Fight Against Income Inequality. St. Martin's Press.

Werness, H. B. (2003). Continuum Encyclopedia of Native Art: Worldview, Symbolism, and Culture in Africa, Oceania, and North America. A&C Black.

Xue, W., Hine, D. W., Loi, N. M., Thorsteinsson, E. B., & Phillips, W. J. (2014). Cultural worldviews and environmental risk perceptions: A meta-analysis. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 40, 249-258.

Zanocco, C. M., & Jones, M. D. (2018). Cultural worldviews and political process preferences. Social Science Quarterly, 99(4), 1377-1389.


Copyright (c) 2022 Naomi Gaitho

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2016 - 2023. European Journal Of Social Sciences Studies (ISSN 2501-8590) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.


Hit counter