Md Jaynal Abedin


In 1947, the international border between Pakistan and India was created by the partitioning of the subcontinent. The newly created Pakistan consisted of two land blocks, one to the west and the other to the east. The Bengal province was divided between East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and India what resulted in a poorly defined border between the two nations. The dispute over the ownership of many villages near the border was started as both countries claimed their sovereignty over them. There were 190 disputed enclaves to the India Bangladesh Border (IBB) what worsened the dispute of the border demarcation. In 1971, East Pakistan got independence as a new state named Bangladesh through a 9-month long liberation war and India joined this war physically against Pakistan. The “honeymoon period” of bilateral relations between newly created Bangladesh and India did not continue for long. There are many common issues between the two neighbors that disturbed the bilateral relations such as border killing and other security issues related to the border, and the sharing of 54 common river’s water. Odhikar, Bangladesh-based human rights organization, reported that from 2000 to 2010, India’s Border Security Force (BSF) killed at least 924 Bangladeshi nationals. MASUM, a Non-governmental Organization (NGO) has mentioned many cases only in West Bengal, a state of India. This paper tries to analyze why the IBB is violent and concludes with a recommendation that how to ensure border security. Data has been used for this study from both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources including newspapers, periodicals, and official statistics of Indian and Bangladesh governments as well as NGOs both national and international are studied. In terms of secondary sources, this paper examines academic books and book chapters, publications in scientific journals, and articles published on the topic. This paper preferred realism to explain the nature of the security issues of the IBB. The main argument of this paper is the IBB is the bloodiest in the world. To improve border security conditions the study suggests that India should act like a neighbor, not a big brother, and work with Bangladesh together.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


India, Bangladesh, border security, BSF, BGB

Full Text:



Adams B, 23 January 2011. India’s shoot-to-kill policy on the Bangladesh border. accessed 24 May 2019

Afsar R, 2008. Population Movement in the Fluid, Fragile and Contentious Borderland between Bangladesh and India. accessed 7 May 2019

Ahmed T, January 2015. Cause and consequences of border killing between Bangladesh and India, Norwegian University of Life Sciences. accessed 24 May 2016

Ahmed K A, 16 August 2017. Why Do Bangladeshis Seem Indifferent to Partition? accessed 15 September 2019

ASK, 30 September 2013. Border Violence Statistics; January-10th December 2013. accessed 24 May 2019

ASK, 20 November 2014. Incidents of Border Violence; January to 31 October 2014. accessed 24 May 2019

ASK, 7 January 2016. Border Violence: January-December 2015. accessed 24 May 2019

ASK, 9 April 2016. Border Violence: January-March 2016. accessed 10 May 2016

Bari M H, 20 February 2014. The Killing Fields. accessed 24 May 2019

BDCYA, We are NOT ANIMALS, We are BANGLADESHI Citizens. accessed 28 May 2019

Bhattacharjee P, 17 July 2013. India-Bangladesh Border Management: The Challenge of Cattle Smuggling, Special report for Observer Research Foundation, July, Issue no 1. accessed 24 May 2019

Bhowmick N, 27 January 2012. Border Violence Tests Fragile Peace on India-Bangladesh Frontier. accessed 24 May 2019

Channel 4 News, 24 July 2009.

Chaudhuri S K, November 1995. Cross Border Trade between India and Bangladesh. accessed 18 December 2019

Cons J, 8 April 2014. A view from the India-Bangladesh border. accessed 5 May 2019

Das P, 2008. India-Bangladesh Border Management: A Review of Government’s Response. Strategic Analysis. Vol. 32, No. 3

Deshpande A (ed.), 2015. The First Line of Defence: Glorious 50 Years of The Border Security Force. Shipra Publications, LG 18-19, Pankaj Central Market, I.P. Ext. Patparganj, Delhi-110092, India

Donnelly J, 2008. The Ethics of Realism, in Reus-Smit C & Snidal D (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of International Relations, Oxford University Press.

Dutta P, 2010. India-Bangladesh relations - Issues, Problems and Recent Developments. Special report for Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies, September Issue, New Delhi, India

FRESHERSLIVE, 18 November 2015. India, Bangladesh agreed to cooperate on intelligence sharing, border security. accessed 5 May 2019

Ghosh P, 2 April 2014. Cattle Smuggling: A Dangerous, Illegal and Highly Profitable Trade between India and Bangladesh. accessed 24 May 2019

HRW, 11 June 2012. India: Abuses by Border Force Increasing; Broken Pledges by India to End Killings, Torture at Bangladeshi Border. accessed 5 May 2019

HRW, 9 December 2010. India/Bangladesh: Indiscriminate Killings, Abuse by Border Officers: Indian Government Should Investigate and End Impunity for Security Force Personnel. accessed 28 May 2019

HRW, 9 December 2010. “Trigger Happy” Excessive Use of Force by Indian Troops at the Bangladesh Border. accessed 6 May 2019

HRW, 24 July 2011. India: New Killings, Torture at Bangladeshi Border. accessed 28 May 2019

Hussain W, 6 November 2002. India, Bangladesh tackle border problems. accessed 8 May 2019

Hussian D, 2 March 2009. Life and death in the Bangladesh-India margins. accessed 7 May 2019

ICDDRB: Centre for Health and Population Research, 2001. Trafficking of Women and Children in Bangladesh. accessed 7 May 2019

Indian Express, 24 December 2002. No truth in India's list of terror camps: Dhaka. accessed 8 May 2019

Jamwal N S, 1 January 2004. Border management: Dilemma of Guarding the India- Bangladesh Border. Strategic Analysis, Vol. 28, No.1, IDSA. accessed 7 May 2019

Joseph M, 31 January 2002. Profile of Indian Paramilitary Forces- Border Security Force. accessed 7 May 2019

Karlekar H, 2005. Bangladesh the Next Afghanistan, New Delhi: Sage Publication

Karim M A, November 2009. Bangladesh-India Relations: Some Recent Trends 1. Working Paper No. 96, Institute of South Asian Studies, National University of Singapore. accessed 24 May 2019

Kumar A, 25 May 2005. Illegal Bangladeshi Immigration: People Take the Mantle when the Government gives up. Paper No. 1391, South Asia Analysis Group. accessed 7 May 2019

Long D & Wilson P (eds.), 1995. Thinkers of the Twenty Years’ Crisis: Inter-War Idealism Reassessed, Oxford.

Mishra M, 3 October 2008. Illegal Cattle Funding Terror. accessed 24 May 2019

Nardin T & Mapel D R (eds.), 1992. Traditions of International Ethics, Cambridge, 1992

Odhikar, 1 October 2011. Nine Month’s Human Rights Monitoring Report. January 01-September 30.,%202011%20HR%20Report.pdf. accessed 24 May 2019

Odhikar, 12 January 2013. Human rights report 2012: Odhikar report on Bangladesh. accessed 24 May 2019

Odhikar 1 January 2017. Bangladesh: Annual Human Rights Report 2016. January-December 2016. accessed 6 December 2019

Odhikar, 12 January 2018. Bangladesh: Annual Human Rights Report 2017. accessed 6 December 2019

Odhikar, 8 August 2019. Annual Human Rights Report on Bangladesh 2018. accessed 6 December 2019

Odhikar, 8 February 2020. Annual Human Rights Report 2019 – BANGLADESH. accessed 18 July 2021

Odhikar, 25 January 2021. Annual Human Rights Report 2020 – BANGLADESH. accessed 18 July 2021

Raizada M, 22 June 2015. Bangladesh to set up 40 border outposts along India-Bangladesh border. accessed 14 September 2019

Rather Z A, 2014. Security Challenges to India-Bangladesh Relations: Some Visible Issues. International Journal of Research (IJR) Vol-1, Issue-4, ISSN 2348-6848

Reuters, 24 August 2008. India says 59 killed over last six months on Bangladesh border. accessed 28 May 2019

Shahin S, 6 March 2004. India frets over Pakistan-Bangladesh nexus. accessed 8 May 2019

Sharma R, 16 July 2014. UN tribunal puts an end to 40-year-old India-Bangladesh maritime dispute. accessed 15 September 2019

Shahshikumar V K & Sen A, 11 February 2009. Indo-Bangladesh border sealed? It’s a big joke. accessed 7 May 2019

Singh P, 2 July 2001. Border Management. BSF Journal 11

The BBC, 18 April 2001. India-Bangladesh border battle. accessed 16 December 2019

The BBC, 6 June 2015. India and Bangladesh sign historic territory swap deal. accessed 5 May 2019

The Daily Star, 24 July 2010. BSF abducts 5 children from border. accessed 24 May 2019

The Daily Star, 22 December 2010. BDR set to turn BGB. accessed 24 May 2019

The Dhaka Tribune, 19 May 2014. Stop border killings for better relations. accessed 23 December 2019

The Economist, 3 February 2011. Shootings on the India-Bangladesh border: Felani’s last steps. accessed 30 May 2019

The Economic Times, 6 January 2016. Government approves MoU with Bangladesh to set up border haats. accessed 24 May 2019

The Economic Times, 1 December 2017. “Raising Day: Six facts you should know about the exceptional Border Security Force of India. accessed 14 September 2019

The Indian News, 27 November 2007. Centre has fenced 3406 km along Indo-Bangladesh border. accessed 28 May 2019

The News Minute, 25 February 2015. India, Bangladesh to step up joint border patrolling, construct fences along the border. accessed 5 May 2019

The Telegraph, 2 August 2006. BDR shields cattle smugglers. accessed 7 May 2019

The Telegraph, 11 May 2003. Terror camp reminder to Dhaka. accessed 15 September 2019

The Times of India, 12 March 2010. BSF, BDR to check cross-border movement of criminals, insurgents. accessed 7 May 2019

The Times of India, 7 May 2015. Parliament passes historic land accord bill to redraw border with Bangladesh. accessed 24 May 2019

The Zee News, 17 December 2002. Dhaka denies India's allegation of harbouring ISI elements. accessed 8 May 2019

World Bank, 15 October 2006. India - Studies on India-Bangladesh Trade: trade policies and potential FTA. Report No. 37863-BD. accessed 28 May 2019


Copyright (c) 2021 Md Jaynal Abedin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2016 - 2023. European Journal Of Social Sciences Studies (ISSN 2501-8590) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.


Hit counter