EXECUTION OF SENSITIZATION PROGRAMMES OF ADVENTIST RELIEF AGENCY ON FEMALE CIRCUMCISION IN NYAMIRA CONFERENCE OF SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTISTS IN NYAMIRA COUNTY, KENYA

Josephine Mensire, Bernard Gechiko Nyabwari, Paul Mulwa Kyalo

Abstract


The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which sensitization programmes of Adventist Relief Agency on female circumcision have been executed in Nyamira Conference of the Seventh-day Adventists in Nyamira County, Kenya. This study adopted a theoretical framework based on social change, social control theories. This study adopted mixed methods approach which includes both quantitative and qualitative methods which encompassed concurrent triangulation. Concurrent triangulation enabled the researcher to adopt descriptive survey research design. The target population in this study was 7 Conference management staff, 3 ADRA programme implementation officers, 60 church pastors and 700 church lay leaders. The sample size consisted of 18 church pastors and 210 lay leaders which was 30% of the target population whereas all the 7 Nyamira Conference management staff members and the 3 ADRA programme implementation officials were purposively included in the study. The study used questionnaires and oral interviews to collect data from the respondents. A pilot study was conducted for reliability and validity of the research instruments. The instruments were piloted in the churches within Nyamira Conference whose pastors and lay leaders did not participate in the study utilizing simple random sampling to select respondents. To ensure reliability of the findings, the data was subjected to cronbanch alpha index. The Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.7878 was obtained and this implied that the research instruments were reliable and therefore the researcher adopted the research instruments. It was established that there were sensitization programmes on female circumcision in Nyamira County. Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that there is need to support the sensitization programmes of Adventist Relief Agency on female circumcision in Nyamira Conference of the Seventh-day Adventists in Nyamira County. Based on the findings of this study it was recommended that the Nyamira Conference management of the Seventh Day Adventist church should strive to encourage and support the sensitization programmes by the Adventist Relief Agency on female circumcision in the area of jurisdiction.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


Keywords


sensitization programmes, female circumcision

Full Text:

PDF

References


a. Published Articles

Government of Kenya (1999). National plan of action for the elimination of female genital mutilation in Kenya 1999 - 2019. Ministry of Health. Government Printer

Government of Kenya (2006). Nyamira District Strategic Plan 2005 - 2010 for Implementation of the National Population Policy for Sustainable Development. National Co-ordinating Agency for Population and Development. Government Printers.

Government of Kenya (2007). Contributing towards efforts to abandon Female Genital Mutilation in Kenya: A situation analysis. Ministry of Gender, Sports, Culture and Social Services. UNFPA. Population Council. Nairobi.

Government of Kenya (2009). National reproductive health strategy 2009-2015. Government Printers.

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (2010). Kenya Health and Demographic Survey 2008-2009. Nairobi.

MOH. (1999). National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Female Genital Mutilation in Kenya, 1999-2019. Nairobi: Ministry of Health.

MOH. (2001). Report on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Genital Cutting. Nairobi: Ministry of Health.

PATH/MYWO. (2000). Final Evaluation Report on Eliminating the Practice of FGM: Awareness Raising and Community Change in Four Districts of Kenya. Nairobi: Path/Kenya.

The General Conference of the SDA Church (2010). Seventh-day Adventist and Ecumenical Movement. Review and Heralds Publishing Association. USA

Thairu, M. J. (2002). Female Genital Mutilation: The Ultimate Price. Nairobi: Kenyatta University.

Toubia, N. (1995). Female Genital Mutilation: A Call for Global Action. United Nations Plaza, NY: United Nations.

UNICEF (2005). Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Statistical Exploration 2005. New York, NY: UNICEF.

UNICEF (2007). Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Female Genital Mutilation /Cutting. Florence: Innocent Digest.

UNICEF (2010). The Dynamics of Social Change. Towards the Abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting in Five African Countries. Florence: Innocent Digest .

UNICEF (2005). Female Genital Mutilation: A Statistical Exploration 2005.New York.

UNICEF (2007). Changing a harmful social convention. Female genital mutilation. Innocenti Digest. Florence

UNICEF (2010). The dynamics of social change. Towards the abandonment of female genital mutilation in five African countries. Innocenti Digest. Florence.

UNICEF (2001). Symposium on the total eradication of Female Genital Mutilation. Nairobi.

WHO (1997). Female Genital Mutilation: A Joint WHO/UNICEF/UNFPA statement. Geneva.

WHO (2001). Management of Pregnancy, Childbirth, and the Postpartum Period in the Presence of Female Genital Mutilation: Report of a WHO Technical Consultation. Geneva.

WHO (2008). Eliminating female genital mutilation: an interagency. UNAIDS, UNDP, UNECA, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCHR, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM, WHO. Geneva.

WHO (2010). Global strategy to stop health-care providers from performing female genital mutilation. Geneva.

WHO (2011). An update on WHO’s work on female genital mutilation (FGM) Progress report. Geneva. www.wormankind.org.uk/wp-content/uploads retrieved on 21/04/2016

WHO (2006). Study Group on Female Genital Mutilation and Obstetric Outcome: WHO Collaborative Prospective Study in Six African Countries. London: Lancet.

WHO (2008). Eliminating Female Genital: Mutilation and Interagency. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Wiley, J. & Blau, P. M. (1977). Inequality and Heterogeneity. Free Press, New York.

b. Journal Articles & Reviews

Abuya, K. (2015). Leadership for Cultural Transformation: Addressing Female Genital Mutilation in Kenya. Interdisciplinary Journal of Partnership Studies, 1(1), 10. http://www.the-star.co.ke/news/2016/02/06/secretive-fgm-affairs-make-kilimos-job-harder_c1289784

Ali, K. F. (2014). Gender and Culture. International Journal of Research, 1(9), 321-326.

Appiah, K. A. (2002). The state and the shaping of identity. Tanner lectures on human values, 23, 233-300.

Aziz, F. A. (1980). Gynecological and Obstetric Complications of Female Circumcision. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 76-87.

Buff, D.D (1995). Letter to the Editor. Female Circumcision. New England Journal of Medicine. Vol 332, 188-190.

Grisaru, N., Lezer, S. & Belmaker, R.H. (1997). Ritual female genital surgery among Ethiopian Jews. Archives of sexual behaviour vol 26. Pg2

Knight, G. (2000). A Search for Identity: The Development of Seventh-Day Adventist Beliefs (pp. 30-36). Hagerstown: Review and Herald Pub Association.2000.

Marshall, J. E., & Raynor, M. D. (2009). Advancing skills in midwifery practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Mitchum, P. D. (2012). Slapping the Hand of Cultural Relativism: Female Genital Mutilation, Male Dominance, and Health as a Human Rights Framework. Wm. & Mary J. Women & L., 19, 585.

Moogi, G. (1995). Continuity and Change in the Practice of Clitoridectomy in Kenya: A Case Study of the Abagusii. The Journal of Modern African Studies , 33(2), 333-7.

Moore, L. W., & Miller, M. (1999). Initiating research with doubly vulnerable populations. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 30(5), 1034-1040.

Shukla, P. (2008). Marketing Research. Paurav Shukla & Ventus Publishing ApS. ISBN 979-87-7681-411-3.

Wright, J. (1996). Female Genital Mutilation: An Overview. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 24(1), 251-259.

Zed Emerson, R. (1962). Power-Dependence Relations. American Sociological Review 27, 31-41.

c. Unpublished Articles

FIDA Kenya. (2001). The Law and Female Circumcision/Female Genital Mutilation. National Focal Point Workshop. Nairobi: FIDA Kenya.

Gwako, L. (1992). Female circumcision in Kenya: A study of Gusii Women Experience and current attitude with implication for social change, Moi University- Eldoret, Kenya.

Kanake, K. A. (2001). Change And Continuity in The Practice of Clitoridectomy: A Case Study of The Tharaka of Meru East District. Unpublished M.A Thesis, Kenyatta University, Nairobi.

Kiarie, M., & Wahlberg, J. (2007). Female Genital Mutilation. Bachelor Thesis, Jyvaaskyla University of Applied Science.

g. Books

Badri, A., & Badri, B. (1990). Female Circumcision Attitude and Practice in Schuler(Ed). In Schuler, Women Law and Development in Africa (pp. 23-34). Maryland: White Plans Maryland.

Banks, E., Meirik, O., Farley, T., Akande, O., Bathija, H., & Ali, M. (2006). Female Genital Mutilation and Obstetric Outcome: WHO Collaborative Prospective Study in Six African Countries. Geneva: WHO Study Group on Female Genital Mutilation and Obstetric Outcomes.

Berg, R. C., Denison, E. and Fretheim, A. (2010). Psychological, social and sexual consequences of female genital mutilation (FGM): a systematic review of quantitative studies. Report from Kunnskapssenteret nr 13-2010.

Children Legal Action Network. (2008). Child Rights Presentation. Reform Agenda for Education Sector in Kenya- Setting Beacons for Policy and Legislative Framework (pp. 22-30). Nairobi: Elimu Yetu Coalition.

Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. (2nd Ed.). London, Sage Publications.

Evans, D., French, K., Gordon, M. H., Kwateng-kluvitse, A., Lamont, M., Richens, Y., ...& Thain, J. (2006). Carolyn Basak, RCN Midwifery and Women’s Health Adviser Chris Cox, RCN Assistant Director of Legal Services Sarah Creighton, Consultant Gynaecologist, The African Women’s Clinic, University College London Hospital/Elizabeth Garrett Anderson & Obstetric Hospital.

Frankfort-Nachmias, C. and Nachmias, D. (2000). Research Methods in the Social Sciences. 6th Edition. New York: Worth.

Guion, L. A. (2002). Triangulation: Establishing the Validity of Qualitative Studies. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS). University of Florida.

House, E. R. (1993). Professional Evaluation: Social Impact and Political Consequences. Newbury Park, California: Sage.

Hosken, F. (1993). The Hosken Report: Genital and Sexual Mutilation of Females. Lexington: Womens International Network.

Karanja, D. N. (2003). Female Genital Mutilation in Africa. Maitland, FL: Xulon Press.

Kenyatta, J. (1978). Facing Mount Kenya. Nairobi: Kenway.

Kombo, D., & Tromp, D. (2006). Proposal and Thesis writing: An Introduction. Nairobi: Pauline Publications Africa.

Kothari, C. R. (2005). Research methodology: Methods & Techniques. New Delhi, New Age International (P) Ltd.

Kothari, C.R (2003). Research methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: Vishwa Prakashan.

Mbiti, J. (1969). African Religion and Philosophy. New York, NY: Praeger Publisher.

Merton, R. (1957). Social Theory and Social Structure. Revised and Enlarged. London: The Free Press of Glencoe.

Mugenda, O., & Mugenda, A. (2003). Research methods. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Nairobi: Acts Press.

Mugenda, M. O. and Mugenda, A.G. (1999). Research Methods. Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, Nairobi. Acts Press.

Namulondo, J. (2009). Female genital mutilation: A Case of the Sabiny in Kapchowra District, Uganda. Master in Human Rights Practice. Roehampton University.

Neuman, W. L. (2003). Social Research Methods. London: Pearson

Onen, D and Oso, W. Y. (2006). A handbook for Beginning Researchers. Kisumu. Option printers and publishers.

Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Prb (2013). Ending Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting. Washington DC

Somekh, B. and Lewin, C. (2005). Research Methods in the Social Sciences. Sage Publications. London. Thousand Oaks. New Delhi.

Uma, S. & Bourgie, R. (2009). Research Methods for Business: A skill Building Approach (5th edition). UK: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

Wigoder, G. (1997). Oxford dictionary of the Jewish Religion. New York and Oxford University Press.

Internet Sources

Moges, A. (2013). What is behind the tradition of FGM?, retrieved from https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/What-is-behind-the-tradition-of-FGM-Moges/c2362224c13b9004aef1aaa6f4a06099dfaef451

Mongare, W. (2015). Girls empowered to shun Female Genital Mutilation practices in Nyamira. Hivisasa.com. Retrieved 22 November 2015, from http://www.hivisasa.com/nyamira/news/96625

Nalaaki, R. (2014). Knives of Sebei Women, Ritual and Power. Sabiny Perception on Female Genital Mutilation and Advocacy Programs. Retrieved from https://munin.uit.no/handle/10037/6476

Nyakondo, F. M. (2015). Female Genital Mutilation: The Case of Kisii People in America. Retrieved from https://repository.stcloudstate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=socresp_etds

Piper, H. and Simons, H. (2005). Ethical Responsibility in Social Research, Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/1347230/Ethical_responsibility_in_social_research




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejsss.v6i4.1088

Copyright (c) 2021 Josephine Mensire, Bernard Gechiko Nyabwari, Paul Mulwa Kyalo

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2015 - 2018. European Journal Of Social Sciences Studies (ISSN 2501-8590) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.


 

Hit counter