Sifa Bura Huguette, Zhang Kite


As the capital role of education for building a sustainable peace is increasing attention in international debates, it is important to analyze the main conditions under which education is taking place. The provision of education in conflict-affected and fragile countries remains a challenging policy. The Congolese education sector is characterized by a gradual retreat of the state in the provision of education and an increasing authority and decision-making power of local actors. The predominance of uncodified practical norms causes constant negotiations between different actors. Among these, teachers have the particular role of providing education to the students. They must do so in a multi-scalar context of reconstruction agendas, inadequate payment, erroneous administration, practical norms and competition between schools for students. Previous studies have outlined the structural impacts on teachers, but none focused on their agency. If teachers are still coping with their very basic needs due to their income situation, quality of education is not the primary or sole concern of their everyday actions. Hence, they have developed a range of strategies to exercise their agency in relation to their income. These strategies encompass the complex process of teacher and school registration and additional means of generating income. Any policies and reforms in the education sector and therefore in the broader peace building environment are doomed to fail if they do not take into account teachers’ income situation.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejsss.v6i4.1081

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