SPECIAL NUTRIONAL NEEDS FOR ATHLETES AND EXERCISERS

Konstantinos D. Tambalis

Abstract


The main goal of this narrative review was to incorporate the recent scientific knowledge on the special nutritional needs that are necessary for specific populations of athletes and exercisers (e.g., children, females, vegans) under several training conditions and sports, in addition to proper recommendations for safe administration. The association between nutrition, exercise, and health is an essential part of athletes' and exercisers' competitive and training programs. The quality, quantity, composition, and timing of food consumption are significant to make sure that athletes could train more efficiently to decrease the risk of illness and injury. Athletes who deteriorate their energy intake or use uncontrolled weight loss practices, eliminate certain food groups from their diet, or follow other extreme nutritional philosophies, are at greater risk for micronutrient deficiencies. Fluid intake before, during, and after exercise training or/and competition is significant, particularly in specific circumstances such as hot climates, altitude, etc. Vegetarian and vegan athletes may be at higher risk for low energy, protein, fat, creatine, carnosine, omega-3 fatty acids, as well as essential micronutrients such as iron, calcium, riboflavin, zinc, and β12. Athletes should be adequately informed about the proper use of sports nutrition and ergogenic supplements. These products should only be used after careful evaluation for safety, efficacy, effectiveness, and compliance with relevant legislation. The most significant point to achieving complete and effective nutrition among travelling athletes is planning and preparation while eating properly and hydrated could decrease the potential adverse effects of jet lag and long flights. An effective, healthy, targeted, and complete diet among athletes of different sports should make available sufficient amounts of energy, protein, and carbohydrates depending on the specific sport to make certain sustained exercise training performance and to maintain and improve exercise performance.

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


Keywords


athletic nutrition, special needs, health, athletic performance, recommendations

Full Text:

PDF

References


Tambalis KD, Arnaoutis G, 2022. Nutrition ergogenic supplements regulate blood PH. An update. European Journal of Fitness, Nutrition and Sport Medicine Studies 3(1). doi: 10.46827/ejfnsm.v3i1.113

Tambalis KD, Arnaoutis G, 2022. Nutritional ergogenic aids favorably affect protein metabolism, athletic performance and health. An update. Journal of Sports Science and Nutrition 3(1): 1-11. doi: 10.33545/27077012.2022.v3.i1a.57

Tambalis KD, Arnaoutis G, 2022. The importance of branched-chain amino acids and nitrate in sports performance and health. Journal of Physical Activity Research 7(1): 37-46. doi: 10.12691/jpar-7-1-6

American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, American College of Sports Medicine, et al., 2009. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41: 709-731. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31890eb86

Thomas DT, Burke LM, Erdman KA, 2016. Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Med Sci Sport Exerc 48: 543–568. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000852

Kose G, Sam CT, Mizrak O, Acar H, Tutkun E, 2021. Nutrition and Dehydration: Players should learn how to bring them to life. Prog Nutr 23: e2021013. doi.org/10.23751/pn.v23i1.9448

Okta PG, Yildiz E, 2021. The Validity and Reliability Study of the Turkish Version of the General and Sport Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (GeSNK). Prog Nutr 1: e2021027. doi: 10.23751/pn.v23i1.10029

Vázquez-Espino K, Fernández-Tena C, Lizarraga-Dallo MA, Farran-Codina A, 2020. Development and Validation of a Short Sport Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire for Athletes. Nutrients 12: 3561. doi: 10.3390/nu12113561

American College of Sports Medicine; American Dietetic Association; Dietitians of Canada, 2000. Joint Position Statement: nutrition and athletic performance. American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association, and Dietitians of Canada. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32(12): 2130-2145. doi: 10.1097/00005768-200012000-00025

Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM, 2016. American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 48(3): 543-568. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2015.12.006

Campbell B, Wilborn C, La Bounty P, et al., 2013. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 10(1): 1. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-10-1

Loucks A, Kiens B, Wright H, 2011. Energy availability in athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences 29(S1), S7-S15. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2011.588958

Jagim AR, Fields J, Magee MK, Kerksick CM, Jones MT, 2022. Contributing Factors to Low Energy Availability in Female Athletes: A Narrative Review of Energy Availability, Training Demands, Nutrition Barriers, Body Image, and Disordered Eating. Nutrients 14(5): 986. doi: 10.3390/nu14050986

Burke L, Deakin V, 2006. Clinical Sports Nutrition, 3rd edition. McGraw Hill, Sydney, Australia.

Desbrow B, McCormack J, Burke LM, et al., 2014. Sports Dietitians Australia Position Statement: Sports Nutrition for the Adolescent Athlete. Int J Sport NutrExercMetab 24: 570-584. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0031

Muia EN, Wright HH, Onywera VO, Kuria EN, 2016. Adolescent elite Kenyan runners are at risk for energy deficiency, menstrual dysfunction and disordered eating. Journal of Sports Sciences 34(7): 598–606. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2015.1065340

Loucks AB, 2006. The response of luteinizing hormone pulsatility to 5 days of low energy availability disappears by 14 years of gynecological age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91(8): 3158–3164. doi: 10.1210/jc.2006-0570

Casa D, Shirreffs S, Cheuvront S, Galloway SR, 2018. Fluids needs for training, competition and recovery. Int J Sport NutrExercMetab 29(2): 175-180 doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0374

Sawyer SM, Afifi RA, Bearinger LH, et al., 2012. Adolescence: A foundation for future health. The Lancet 379(9826): 1630–1640. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60072-5

Desbrow B, Burd NA, Tarnopolsky M, Moore DR, Elliott-Sale KJ, 2019. Nutrition for Special Populations: Young, Female, and Masters Athletes. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 29(2): 220–227. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0269

Barrack MT, Sassone J, Dizon F, et al., 2022. Dietary Supplement Intake and Factors Associated with Increased Use in Preadolescent Endurance Runners. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 122(3): 573–582. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2021.07.013

Mazzulla M, Volterman KA, Packer JE, et al., 2018. Whole-body net protein balance plateaus in response to increasing protein intakes during post-exercise recovery in adults and adolescents. Nutrition & Metabolism 15: 62. doi: 10.1186/s12986-018-0301-z

Tambalis K, 2016. Nutritional support for athletes (Ergogenic Supplements). Carpe Librum, Athens, Greece.

Pedlar CR, Brugnara C, Bruinvels G, Burden R, 2018. Iron balance and iron supplementation for the female athlete: A practical approach. European Journal of Sport Science 18(2): 295–305.

Hashimoto H, Ishijima T, Suzuki K, Higuchi M, 2016. The effect of the menstrual cycle and water consumption on physiological responses during prolonged exercise at moderate intensity in hot conditions. The Journal of Sport Medicine and Physical Fitness 56(9): 951–960.

Duren DL, Sherwood RJ, Czerwinski SA, et al., 2008. Body composition methods: comparisons and interpretation. J Diabetes Sci Technol 2: 1139-1146.

Artal R, O’Toole M, 2003. Guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists for exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. British Journal of Sports Medicine 37(1): 6–12. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.37.1.6

Halson SL, Burke LM, Pearce J, 2019. Nutrition for Travel: From Jet lag To Catering, International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 29(2): 228-235. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0278

Reilly T, Waterhouse J, Burke LM, Alonso JM, International Association of Athletics Federations 2007. Nutrition for travel. Journal of sports sciences 25 Suppl 1: S125–S134. doi: 10.1080/02640410701607445

Shirreffs S, Sawka M, 2011. Fluid and electrolyte needs for training, competition and recovery. Journal of Sports Sciences 29(S1): S39-S46. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2011.614269

Orrù S, Imperlini E, Nigro E, et al., 2018. Role of Functional Beverages on Sport Performance and Recovery. Nutrients 10(10): 1470. doi: 10.3390/nu10101470

Potgieter S, 2013. Sport nutrition: A review of the latest guidelines for exercise and sport nutrition from the American College of Sport Nutrition, the International Olympic Committee and the International Society for Sports Nutrition. South Africa Journal of Clinical Nutrition 26: 1607-1658. doi: 10.1080/16070658.2013.11734434

Bergeron MF, Bahr R, Bartsch P, et al., 2012. International Olympic Committee consensus statement on thermoregulatory and altitude challenges for high-level athletes. British Journal of Sports Medicine 46: 770-779. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091296

Burke LM, Jeukendrup AE, Jones AM, Mooses M, 2019. Contemporary nutrition strategies to optimize performance in distance runners and race walkers. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 29: 117-129. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0004

Fulco CS, Friedlander AL, Muza SR, et al, 2002. Energy intake deficit and physical performance at altitude. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 73: 758-765.

Garvican-Lewis LA, Govus AD, Peeling P, Abbiss CR, Gore CJ, 2016. Iron supplementation and altitude: decision making using a regression tree. Journal of. Sports Science Medicine 15: 204-205.

Reguant-Closa A, Roesch A, Lansche J, Nemecek T, Lohman TG, Meyer NL, 2020. The Environmental Impact of the Athlete's Plate Nutrition Education Tool. Nutrients 12(8): 2484. doi: 10.3390/nu12082484

Péter S, Holguin F, Wood L, et al., 2015. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution. Nutrients 7: 10398–10416. doi:10.3390/nu7125539

Devrim-Lanpir A, Hill L, Knechtle B, 2021. Efficacy of Popular Diets Applied by Endurance Athletes on Sports Performance: Beneficial or Detrimental? A Narrative Review. Nutrients 13(2): 491. doi: 10.3390/nu13020491

Shaw KA, Zello GA, Rodgers CD, Warkentin TD, Baerwald AR, Chilibeck PD, 2022. Benefits of a plant-based diet and considerations for the athlete. European journal of applied physiology. doi: 10.1007/s00421-022-04902-w

Pohl A, Schünemann F, Bersiner K, Gehlert S, 2021. The Impact of Vegan and Vegetarian Diets on Physical Performance and Molecular Signaling in Skeletal Muscle. Nutrients 13(11): 3884. doi: 10.3390/nu13113884

Joint Position Statement, 2016. Νutrition and athletic performance. American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association, and Dietitians of Canada. Med Sci Sports Exercdoi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000852

Jakše B, 2021. Placing a Well-Designed Vegan Diet for Slovenes. Nutrients 13(12): 4545. doi: 10.3390/nu13124545

Maughan R, Greenhaff P, Hespel P, 2011. Dietary supplements for athletes: emerging trends and recurring themes. Journal of Sports Sciences 29(S1): S57-S66. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2011.587446

Burke L, Deakin V, 2006. Clinical Sports Nutrition, 3rd edition. McGraw Hill, Sydney, Australia.

Institute of Medicine of the National Academie, 2002. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (macronutrients). Washington, DC, National Academies Press.

IOC Nutrition for Athletes, 2012. A practical guide to eating for health and performance. Prepared by the Nutrition Working Group of the International Olympic Committee 2010. Revised and Updated in April 2012 by Prof. Ron Maughan and Prof. Louise Burke.

Phillips S, van Loon L, 2011. Dietary protein for athletes: from requirements to optimum adaptation. Journal of Sports Sciences 29(S1): S29-S38. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2011.619204

Slater G, Phillips S, 2011. Nutrition guidelines for strength sports: weightlifting, throwing events, body building, sprints. Journal of Sports Sciences 29(S1): S67-S77. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2011.574722

Stellingwerff T, Maughan RJ, Burke LM, 2011. Nutrition for power sports: middle-distance running, track cycling, rowing, canoeing/kayaking, and swimming. Journal of Sports Sciences 29(S1): S79-S89. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2011.589469

Stout A, 2007. Fueling and weight management strategies in sports nutrition. Journal of American Dietitian Association 107: 1475-1476. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2007.07.025

Jeukendrup AE, 2011. Endurance sports: marathon, triathlon, road cycling. Journal of Sports Sciences 29(S1): S91-S99. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2011.610348

Garth AK, Burke LM, 2013. What do athletes drink during competitive sporting activities? Sports Medicine 43(7): 539-564. doi: 10.1007/s40279-013-0028-y

Moss K, Zhang Y, Kreutzer A, et al., 2022. The Relationship Between Dietary Intake and Sleep Quality in Endurance Athletes. Frontiers in sports and active living 4: 810402. doi: 10.3389/fspor.2022.810402

Maughan R, Greenhaff P, Hespel P, 2011. Dietary supplements for athletes: emerging trends and recurring themes. Journal of Sports Sciences 29(S1): S57-S66. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2011.587446

Duren DL, Sherwood RJ, Czerwinski SA, et al., 2008. Body composition methods: comparisons and interpretation. Journal of Diabetes Science Technology 2: 1139-1146. doi: 10.1177/193229680800200623

Sundgot-Borgen J, Garthe I, 2011. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weightclass sports and the challenge of weight and body composition. Journal of Sports Sciences 29(S1): S101-S114. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2011.565783

Marí-Sanchis A, Burgos-Balmaseda J, Hidalgo-Borrajo R, 2022. Eating disorders in sport. Update and proposal for an integrated approach. Endocrinologia, diabetes y nutricion, 69(2): 131–143. doi: 10.1016/j.endien.2022.02.016

Langan-Evans C, Reale R, Sullivan J, Martin D, 2021. Nutritional Considerations for Female Athletes in Weight Category Sports. European journal of sport science 1–13. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2021.1936655

Benardot D, 2021. Nutritional Concerns for the Artistic Athlete. Physical medicine and rehabilitation clinics of North America 32(1): 51–64. doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2020.09.008

Turocy PS, DePalma BF, Horswill CA, et al., 2011. National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement: safe weight loss and maintenance practices in sport and exercise. Journal of Athletic Training 46: 322-336. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-46.3.322

Burke L, Hawley J, Wong S, Jeukendrup A, 2011. Carbohydrates for training and competition. Journal of Sports Sciences 29(S1): 17-27. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2011.585473

Mujika I, Burke LM, 2010. Nutrition in team sports. Annals of nutrition & metabolism 57 Suppl 2: 26–35. doi: 10.1159/000322700

Holway FE, Spriet LL, 2011. Sport-specific nutrition: practical strategies for team sports. Journal of sports sciences 29 Suppl 1: S115–S125. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2011.605459

Maughan R, Burke LM, 2012. Nutrition for Athletes. IOC Nutrition Guidelines, pp 43-47.

Schneider C, Hanakam F, Wiewelhove T, et al., 2018. Heart Rate Monitoring in Team Sports-A Conceptual Framework for Contextualizing Heart Rate Measures for Training and Recovery Prescription. Frontiers in physiology 9: 639. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00639

Williams C, Rollo I, 2015. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance. Sports Med 45: 13–22. doi: 10.1007/s40279-015-0399-3

Renard M, Kelly DT, Chéilleachair NN, Catháin CÓ, 2021. How Does the Dietary Intake of Female Field-Based Team Sport Athletes Compare to Dietary Recommendations for Health and Performance? A Systematic Literature Review. Nutrients 13(4): 1235. doi: 10.3390/nu13041235

Poulios A, Georgakouli K, Draganidis D, et al., 2019. Protein-Based Supplementation to Enhance Recovery in Team Sports: What is the Evidence?. Journal of sports science & medicine 18(3): 523–536.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejprs.v3i1.119

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2022 Konstantinos D. Tambalis

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015 - 2022. European Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Studies (ISSN 2668-9928) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.