Konstantinos D. Tambalis


The main goal of this narrative review was to incorporate the recent scientific knowledge on the special nutritional needs that are necessary for specific populations of athletes and exercisers (e.g., children, females, vegans) under several training conditions and sports, in addition to proper recommendations for safe administration. The association between nutrition, exercise, and health is an essential part of athletes' and exercisers' competitive and training programs. The quality, quantity, composition, and timing of food consumption are significant to make sure that athletes could train more efficiently to decrease the risk of illness and injury. Athletes who deteriorate their energy intake or use uncontrolled weight loss practices, eliminate certain food groups from their diet, or follow other extreme nutritional philosophies, are at greater risk for micronutrient deficiencies. Fluid intake before, during, and after exercise training or/and competition is significant, particularly in specific circumstances such as hot climates, altitude, etc. Vegetarian and vegan athletes may be at higher risk for low energy, protein, fat, creatine, carnosine, omega-3 fatty acids, as well as essential micronutrients such as iron, calcium, riboflavin, zinc, and β12. Athletes should be adequately informed about the proper use of sports nutrition and ergogenic supplements. These products should only be used after careful evaluation for safety, efficacy, effectiveness, and compliance with relevant legislation. The most significant point to achieving complete and effective nutrition among travelling athletes is planning and preparation while eating properly and hydrated could decrease the potential adverse effects of jet lag and long flights. An effective, healthy, targeted, and complete diet among athletes of different sports should make available sufficient amounts of energy, protein, and carbohydrates depending on the specific sport to make certain sustained exercise training performance and to maintain and improve exercise performance.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejprs.v3i1.119


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