Ban Meng Lee, Boon Hock Lim, Kok Hwee Chia


Although reports on akinetic family drawings or Draw-a-Family (DaF) found in literature can be traced to Hulse (1951, 1952), Burns and Kaufmann (1970, 1972) have been credited as the originators of the Kinetic Family Drawing (KFD), which is used in assessing cognitive, interpersonal, and/or psychological functioning today. Spinetta et al. (1981) revised the KFD measure and used it as an affective measure to work with siblings of children diagnosed with cancer. The focus of this paper is to introduce the Kinetic Family Drawing Interview Questionnaire (KFD-IQ) within the context of a family unit which is based on the triangulation of three key components – composition of a family (C), the relationships of the family members (R), and the dynamics of family activities (D) – involving the social beings (S) that make up the family unit. From these components, the authors of this paper have created the CRDS framework as the model of a family unit. The goal of the KFD-IQ within the CRDS framework is to provide therapists an additional tool to be used with children and adolescents with emotional behavioral issues and also to complement the KFD (Burns & Kaufman, 1970, 1972) or KFD-Revised (Spinetta et al., 1981) scoring system for the KFD analysis. 


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



family, interview questionnaire, KFD analysis, KFD scoring system, kinetic family drawing (KFD)


Buck, J.N. (1948). The HTP technique: A qualitative and quantitative scoring manual. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 47, 317-396.

Buck, J.N. (1964). The House-Tree-Person (HTP manual supplement). Beverly Hills, CA: Western Psychological Services.

Burns, R.C. (1982). Self-growth in families: Kinetic family drawings (KFC) research and application. New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel.

Burns, R.C. (1990). A guide to family-centered circle drawings (FCCD) with symbol probes and visual free association. New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel.

Burns, R.C., & Kaufman, S. (1970). Kinetic family drawings (KFD): An introduction to understanding children through kinetic drawings. New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel.

Burns, R.C., & Kaufman, S. (1972). Actions, styles and symbols in kinetic family drawings (KFD): Research and application. New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel.

Carr, A. (2006). Thematic review of family therapy journals 2005. Journal of Family Therapy, 28, 417-436.

Carter, B., & McGoldrick, M. (1999). The divorce cycle: A major variation in the American family life cycle. In B. Carter & M. McGoldrick (Eds.), The expanded family life cycle: Individual, family, and social perspectives (pp.373-380). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon

Chia, K.H., & Ng, A.G.T. (2011). Draw a coconut tree for children: An interpretative manual on children’s socio-emotional state. Singapore: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Chuah, V. (1992). Kinetic family drawing of Chinese-American children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI.

Corman L. (1967) Le test du dessin de famille dans la pratique medico-pedagogique. Paris, France: Presses Universitaires de France.

Cummings, J.A. (1980). An evaluation of objective scoring systems for kinetic family drawings. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41(6). AAT8029117.

Fan, R.J. (2012). A study on the kinetic family drawings by children with different family structures. The International Journal of Arts Education, 10(1), 173-204.

Glick, P.C. (1955). The life cycle of the family. Marriage and Family Living, 17(1), 3-9.

Heineman, T. (1975). Kinetic family drawings of siblings of severely emotionally disturbed children. Thesis Abstracts. School of Social Welfare, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

Hulse, W.C. (1951). The emotionally disturbed child draws his family. Quarterly Child Behavior, 3, 152-174.

Hulse, W.C. (1952). Childhood conflict expressed through family drawing. Journal of Projective Techniques, 16, 66-79.

Johnston, D.D. (1975). Comparison of DAF and KFD in children from intact and divorced homes. Thesis Abstracts. California State University, San Jose, CA.

Klepsch, M. (1979). A validation study of the draw-a-teacher technique on third grade children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of North Colorado, CO.

Klepsch, M., & Logie, L. (1982). Children draw and tell: An introduction to the projective uses of children’s human figure drawings. Bristol, PA: Brunner/Mazel.

Koppitz, R.M. (1968). Psychological evaluation of children’s human figure drawing. New York, NY: Gune & Stratton.

GenoPro (2016). What is a genogram: Introduction to the genogram. Retrieved [online] from:

Hardin, M.E., & Peterson, L.W. (1997). Children in distress: A guide for screening children’s art. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company.

Gerson, R., & McGoldrick, M. (1985). The computerized genogram. Primary care, 12(3), 535-545.

McPhee, J., & Wegner, K. (1976). Kinetic family drawing styles and emotionally disturbed childhood behavior. Journal of Personality Assessment, 40, 487-491.

Miliacca, C., Gagliardi, G., & Pescatori, M. (2009). The ‘Draw-the-Family Test’ in the preoperative assessment of patients with anorectal diseases and psychological distress: A prospective controlled study. Colorectal Disease, 12, 792–798.

Mostkoff, D.L.M., & Lazarus, P.J. (1983). The kinetic family drawing: The reliability of an objective scoring system. Psychology in the Schools, 20(1), 16-20.

Myers, D.V. (1978). Toward an objective evaluation procedure of the kinetic family drawings (KFD). Journal of Personality Assessment, 42, 358-365.

Nutttall, E., Chieh, L., & Nuttall, R. (1988). View of the family by Chinese and US children: A comparative study of kinetic family drawing. Journal of Social Psychology, 26, 191-194.

O’Brien, R., & Patton, W. (1974). Development of an objective scoring method for kinetic family drawing. Journal of Personality Assessment, 58, 156-164.

Pierangelo, R., & Giuliani, G. (2007). The educator’s diagnostic manual of disabilities and disorders (EDM). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Reynolds, C.R. (1978). A quick scoring guide to the interpretation of children’s kinetic family drawings. Psychology in the Schools, 15, 489-492.

Rollins, J.A. (1990). Childhood cancer: Siblings draw and tell. Pediatric Nursing, 16(1), 21-27.

Spinetta, J., McLaren, H., Fox, R., & Sparta, S. (1981). The kinetic family drawing in childhood cancer: A revised appreciation of an age-independent measure. In J.J. Spinetta & P. Deasy-Spinetta (Eds.), Living with childhood cancer (pp.86-120). St Louis, C.V. Mosby and Company.

Strong, B., & DeVault, C. (1992). The marriage and family Experience (5th ed.). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company


Copyright © 2015 - 2023. European Journal of Special Education Research (ISSN 2501 - 2428) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).