Adagi Betty Savaco, Gladwell Wambiri


The purpose of the study was to establish the teachers’ perception on the influence of Tusome instructional intervention strategies on reading levels in public primary schools in central zone, Kilifi North Sub-County, Kenya. The study employed a descriptive design to carry out the study. A pilot study was conducted in two schools. The sample size comprised 60 grade two children, 18 teachers, 5 headteachers, ICSO and 1 sub-county director of education. Data collection techniques involved the use of observations and questionnaires to collect both qualitative and quantitative data. The collected data obtained from observations and respondents were grouped together, coded, transformed and analyzed through the use of Statistical Packages for Social Scientists (SPSS) software version 21. Then the analyzed data was presented in form of frequencies and percentages while figures and tables will be used to present the result where necessary. The findings revealed that teaching strategies have an influence on the implementation of Tusome in lower primary schools. Pupil’s textbooks, teacher’s guides and storybooks were adequately provided. There were no other ICT resources provided for the learners. It was concluded that indeed, the Tusome literacy intervention program was strongly related to the improved learner achievement in other tasks that require reading, in the improvement of the overall learner achievement at grade 2. The ANOVA statistics were used to test the fitness of the regression model. The significance F value of 47.345 (p<0.001) was obtained implying that the regression model was fit and statistically significant and can be deemed fit for prediction. The study recommends that the Ministry of Education implements literacy interventions as a means of improving learner achievement in other subjects. The instructional support included should take into consideration the scope (number of teachers supported), as well as the logistics of reaching schools, teachers and head teachers.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


grade two, instructional intervention, reading literacy, Tusome programme; teachers’ perceptions

Full Text:



Acharya, A. S., Prakash, A., Saxena, P., & Nigam, A. (2013). Sampling: Why and how of it. Indian Journal of Medical Specialties, 4(2), 330-333.

Celik, B. (2019). A Study on the factors affecting reading and reading habits of preschool children. International Journal of English Linguistics, 10(1), 101.

Colditz, P., Sanders, M. R., Boyd, R., Pritchard, M., Gray, P., O’Callaghan, M. J., ... & Jardine, L. (2015). Prem Baby Triple P: a randomised controlled trial of enhanced parenting capacity to improve developmental outcomes in preterm infants. BMC pediatrics, 15(1), 1-13.

Erwin, J., Woolf, A., Oyoo, O., Cederlund, I., Mwaniki, L., & Etau, P. (2016). The UWEZO project—musculoskeletal health training in Kenya. Clinical rheumatology, 35(2), 433-440.

Fleisch, B., & Motilal, G. B. (2020). The triple cocktail programme to improve the teaching of reading: Types of engagement. South African Journal of Childhood Education, 10(1), 1-13.

Gitau, E. W. (2018). The Influence of Project Activities on Performance of Early Grade Literacy Programmes: A Case of Tusome Program in Mbeere North Sub County, Embu County, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).

Guo, Y., Sun, S., Breit-Smith, A., Morrison, F. J., & Connor, C. M. (2015). Behavioral engagement and reading achievement in elementary-school-age children: A longitudinal cross-lagged analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(2), 332.

Karimi, S. (2020). Participatory monitoring and evaluation process, School Environment and Performance of Literacy and Numeracy Educational programme in Public Primary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).

Kim, J. (2020). Unpacking the Role of Early Learning in Student Learning Outcomes: Evidence from National Reform of Pre-primary Education in Ethiopia (Doctoral dissertation, University of Cambridge).

Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and techniques. New Age International.

Momanyi, J. M., & Rop, P. K. (2020). Teacher preparedness for the implementation of competency-based curriculum in Kenya: A survey of early grade primary school teachers’ in Bomet East Sub-County. The Cradle of Knowledge: African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research, 7(1), 10-15.

Panhwar, A. H., Ansari, S., & Ansari, K. (2016). Sociocultural theory and its role in the development of language pedagogy. Advances in language and literary studies, 7(6), 183-188.

Paseka, A., & Schwab, S. (2020). Parents’ attitudes towards inclusive education and their perceptions of inclusive teaching practices and resources. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 35(2), 254-272.

Piper, B., Destefano, J., Kinyanjui, E. M., & Ong’ele, S. (2018). Scaling up successfully: Lessons from Kenya’s Tusome national literacy program. Journal of Educational Change, 19(3), 293-321.

Piper, B., Destefano, J., Kinyanjui, E. M., & Ong’ele, S. (2018). Scaling up successfully: Lessons from Kenya’s Tusome national literacy program. Journal of Educational Change, 19(3), 293-321.

Piper, B., Jepkemei, E., Kwayumba, D., & Kibukho, K. (2015). Kenya's ICT Policy in Practice: The Effectiveness of Tablets and E-Readers in Improving Student Outcomes. In FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education (Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 3-18). Lehigh University Library and Technology Services. 8A East Packer Avenue, Fairchild Martindale Library Room 514, Bethlehem, PA 18015.

Rahmatirad, M. (2020). A Review of Socio-Cultural Theory. Siasat, 5(3), 23-31.

Sayed, Y., & Ahmed, R. (2015). Education quality, and teaching and learning in the post-2015 education agenda. International Journal of Educational Development, 40, 330-338.

Slade, T. S., Piper, B., Kaunda, Z., King, S., & Ibrahim, H. (2017). Is ‘summer’ reading loss universal? Using ongoing literacy assessment in Malawi to estimate the loss from grade-transition breaks. Research in Comparative and International Education, 12(4), 461-485.

Verenikina, I. (2003). Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory and the zone of proximal development. Retrieved from https://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=4207&context=sspapers

Wangeci, K., & Njoroge, R. (2021). Awareness and use of information resources to promote environmental protection and conservation at Kenya National Library Service, Nairobi. African Journal of Education and Practice, 7(3), 1-13.

Weishart, J. E. (2017). Aligning education rights and remedies. Kan. JL & Pub. Pol'y, 27, 346.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejse.v9i2.4756

Copyright © 2015 - 2023. European Journal of Special Education Research (ISSN 2501 - 2428) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).