Constantinos N. Mantzikos, Christina S. Lappa


This article provides an analysis of the difficulties and barriers deaf and hard of hearing individuals face during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. In a pandemic situation, apart from the economy, education is also largely affected. In the past few months, many disabled and non-disabled pupils and university students were taken by complete surprise by the immense changes in the education sector and mainly by the innovations introduced, especially in the lower education grades, which resulted in considerable implications, despite the positive response they received. In these trying times humanity is experiencing, the difficulties that deaf and hard of hearing individuals have to face were exacerbated, perpetuating their marginalisation.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


education; deaf and hard of hearing; COVID-19; difficulties; barriers; Greece; viewpoint

Full Text:



Ackah-Jnr, F. R. & Danso, J. B. (2018). Examining the physical environment of Ghanaian inclusive schools: how accessible, suitable and appropriate is such environment for inclusive education? International Journal of Inclusive Education, 23(2), 188-208. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2018.1427808

Ainscow, M. (2005). Developing inclusive education systems: what are the levers for change? Journal of Educational Change, 6(2), 109-124.

Alasim, K. & Paul, P. V. (2018). Understanding factors that affect teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion of students who are hard of hearing in Saudi Arabia. Deafness & Education International, 21(4), 210-226. https://doi.org/10.1080/14643154.2018.1489950

Angelides, P., Stylianou, T., & Gibbs, P. (2006). Preparing teachers for inclusive education in Cyprus. Teaching and Teaching Education, 22(4), 513-522. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2005.11.013

Apple, M. W. (2016). Εκπαίδευση και εξουσία [Education and Power]. Athens: Epikentro Publishers.

Barkas, L. A., Armstrong, P.-A., & Bishop, G. (2020). Is inclusion still an illusion in higher education? Exploring the curriculum through the student voice. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2020.1776777

Berrong, A. K., Schuster, J. W., Morse, T. E., & Collins, B. C. (2007). The effects of response cards on active participation and social behavior of students with moderate and severe disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 19, 187–199.

Bittinger, D. L. (2015). The effects of Response Cards on 11th Grade Physics Achievement and off-task behaviors. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. State University of New York, Fredonia, New York, USA.

CEDEFOP (2020, July 10). Greece: responses to the COVID-19 outbreak. https://cutt.ly/uatqvay

Christle, C. A., & Schuster, J. W. (2003). The effects of using response cards on student participation, academic achievement, and on-task behavior during whole-class, math instruction. Journal of Behavioral Education, 12, 147–165.

Clarke, L. S., Haydon, T., Bauer, A., & Epperly, A. C. (2015). Inclusion of Students with an Intellectual Disability in the General Education Classroom with the Use of Response Cards. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 60 (1), 35–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/1045988X.2014.966801

Didion, L. A., Toste, J. R., & Wehby, J. H. (2018). Response Cards to Increase Engagement and Active Participation of Middle School Students with EBD. Remedial and Special Education, 41(2), 111-123. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932518800807

Drakotou, A., & Zoniou-Sideri, A. (2016). Οι απόψεις και οι εμπειρίες των εκπαιδευτικών Παράλληλης Στήριξης Πρωτοβάθμιας και Δευτεροβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης για τον θεσμό της Παράλληλης Στήριξης [First and second grade “support teachers” opinions and experiences regarding the institution of “support teacher”]. In: A. Zoniou-Sideri, E. Nteropoulou-Nterou, & K. Papadopoulou. (Eds.), Η έρευνα στην ειδική αγωγή, στην ενταξιακή εκπαίδευση και στην αναπηρία [Research in Special Education, inclusive education and disability] (Collective Volume E), (pp.11-27). Athens: Pedio Publications.

Drame, K. & Kamphoff, Κ. (2014). Perceptions of Disability and Access to Inclusive Education in West Africa: A Comparative Case Study in Dakar, Senegal. International Journal of Special Education, 29(3), 69-81.

Duchaine, E. L., Jolivette, K., Fredrick, L. D., & Alberto, P. A. (2018). Increase Engagement and Achievement with Response Cards: Science and Mathematics Inclusion Classes. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal 16(2), 157-176.

Edmunds, W. J. (2020). Finding a path to reopen schools during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30249-2

Ericks-Brophy, A. & Whittingham, J. (2013). Teachers’ Perceptions of the Inclusion of Children with Hearing Loss in General Education Settings. American Annals of the Deaf, 158(1), 63–97.

Fuller, M., Bradley, A. & Healey, M. (2004). Incorporating disabled students within an inclusive higher education environment. Disability & Society, 19(5), 455–468. https://doi.org/10.1080/0968759042000235307

Fuller, M., Healey, M., Bradley, A. & Hall, T. (2004). Barriers to learning: a systematic study of the experience of disabled students in one university. Studies in Higher Education, 29(3), 303–318. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070410001682592

George, C. L. (2010). Effects of response cards on performance and participation in social studies for middle school students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 35, 200–213. https://doi.org/10.1177/019874291003500302

Greek Ministry of Education (2020, May 5). Αυξανόμενη η ανταπόκριση στην εξ αποστάσεως εκπαίδευση [Responding to distance education is increasing]. Minedu.gov.gr. https://cutt.ly/bodVigj

Greek Ministry of Education (2020, May 7). Τρίτη αποστολή τεχνολογικού εξοπλισμού στα σχολεία μας από δωρεές, για χρήση από μαθητές και εκπαιδευτικούς. Συνολική ως τώρα αξία δωρεών: 3.125.000 ευρώ [The third shipment of technological equipment to our schools from donations, for use by students and teachers. Total value of donations so far: 3,125,000 euros.]. Minedu.gov.gr. https://bit.ly/3hPukK4

Hankebo, T. (2018). Inclusive Education as an Approach to Reduce Inequitable Access to Education: Exploring the Practices of Jegnoch Metasebiya Primary School in Harar Town, Ethiopia. Journal of Teacher Education and Educators, 7(2), 123-138.

Herring, T. J., & Woolsey, M. L. (2020). Three suggested teaching strategies for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Support for Learning, 35(3), 346-358. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9604.12314

Hughes, C. E., & Murawski, W. W. (2001). Lessons from Another Field: Applying Co-teaching Strategies to Gifted Education. Gifted Child Quarterly, 45 (3), 195–204. https://doi.org/10.1177/001698620104500304

Humphrey, N., & Lewis, S. (2008). `Make me normal': the views and experiences of pupils on the autistic spectrum in mainstream secondary schools. Autism: An International Journal of Research and Practice, 12 (1), 23-47. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361307085267

Kapasia, N., Paul, P., Roy, A., Saha, J., Zaveri, A., Mallick, R., … Chouhan, P. (2020). Impact of lockdown on learning status of undergraduate and postgraduate students during COVID-19 pandemic in West Bengal, India. Children and Youth Services Review, 116, 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105194

Kavadias, G. (2019). Στον πάτο οι δημόσιες δαπάνες για την εκπαίδευση [At the bottom are public spending on education]. Antitetradia tis Ekpaideysis, 126, 7.

Khalil, H. & Ebner, M. (2014). MOOCs completion rates and possible methods to improve retention - a literature review. In J. Viteli & M. Leikomaa (Eds.), Proceedings of Ed Media 2014─World Conference on Educational Media and Technology (pp. 1305-1313). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE) https://cutt.ly/8omp9lH

Kiriungi, L., Mwitti, R. & Mburugu, B. (2014). An Assessment of Public Primary School Teachers’ Attitude towards Inclusion of Children with Hearing Impairment in Central Region of Kenya. International Journal of Education and Research, 2 (3), 1-10.

Kontoleon, G. A., & Nteropoulou-Nterou, E. (2013). Απόψεις και εμπειρίες εκπαιδευτικών Δευτεροβάθμιας Εκπαίδευσης για την Παράλληλη Στήριξη μαθητών με αναπηρία στο γενικό σχολείο [Secondary education teachers’ views and experiences towards the role of support teachers of students with disabilities inside the regular classrooms in mainstream schools]. In: A. Zoniou-Sideri, E. Nteropoulou-Nterou, & K. Papadopoulou. (Eds.), Η έρευνα στην ειδική αγωγή, στην ενταξιακή εκπαίδευση και στην αναπηρία [Research in Special Education, inclusive education and disability] (Collective Volume C), (pp.11-34). Athens: Pedio Publications.

Kounatidou, Th., & Mavroeides, E. (2019). Τα Χαρακτηριστικά και ο Ρόλος των Καθηγητών–Συμβούλων ως Παράγοντας Ικανοποίησης των Φοιτητών στην εξ Αποστάσεως Εκπαίδευση [The Characteristics and the Role of Teachers-Counselors as a Student Satisfaction Factor in Distance Education]. Open Education: The Journal for Open and Distance Education and Educational Technology, 15(2), 7-23. https://doi.org/10.12681/jode.19590

Lampadari, I., & Gkaravelas, K. (2018). Συνεκπαίδευση παιδιών με Διαταραχές Αυτιστικού Φάσματος: Γνώσεις, Εμπειρίες και Στάσεις εκπαιδευτικών Δευτεροβάθμιας Εκπαίδευσης [The inclusion of students with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Experience, knowledge, and attitudes of Secondary Education Teachers]. Theory and Research in the Sciences of Education, 29, 7-32.

Lampropoulou, V. & Padeliadu, S. (1997). Teachers of the Deaf as Compared with Other Groups of Teachers: Attitudes toward People with Disabilities and Inclusion. American Annals of the Deaf, 142(1), 26–33.

Law 1143/1981. Περί ειδικής αγωγής, ειδικής επαγγελματικής εκπαιδεύσεως, απασχολήσεως και κοινωνικής μερίμνης ιων αποκλινόντων εκ του φυσιολογικού ατόμων και άλλων τινών εκπαιδευτικών διατάξεων [Special Education, Specialised Vocational Training, Employment and Social Care of diverging individuals from normalisation and οther Educational Provisions]. FEK March 3, 1981, v. A’, n. 80.

Law 3794/2009. Ρύθμιση θεμάτων του πανεπιστημιακού και τεχνολογικού τομέα της ανώτατης εκπαίδευσης και άλλες διατάξεις [Regulation of issues of the university and technological sector of higher education and other provisions]. FEK September 4, 2009, 156/Α΄.

Levinson, M., Cevik, M. & Lipsitch, M. (2020). Reopening Primary Schools during the Pandemic. New England Journal of Medicine. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMms2024920

Liasidou, A. (2014). Critical disability studies and socially just change in higher education. British Journal of Special Education, 41(2), 120-135. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8578.12063

Liasidou, A., & Symeou, L. (2016). Neoliberal versus social justice reforms in education policy and practice: discourses, politics and disability rights in education. Critical Studies in Education, 59(2), 149–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17508487.2016.1186102

Mapolisa, T. & Tshabalala, T. (2013). The Impact of Inclusion of Children with Hearing Impairment into Regular Schools: A Case Study of Dakamela Primary School in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Asian Social Science, Asian Economic and Social Society, 3(7), 1500-1510.

Mavropalias, T., Alevriadou, A. & Rachanioti, E. (2019). Parental perspectives on inclusive education for children with intellectual disabilities in Greece. International Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/20473869.2019.1675429

Moriña, A. & Orozco, I. (2020). Spanish faculty members speak out: Barriers and aids for students with disabilities at university. Disability & Society, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2020.1723495

Moswela, E. & Mukhopadhyay, S. (2011). Asking for too much? The voices of students with disabilities in Botswana. Disability & Society, 26(3), 307–319. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2011.560414

Narayan J, Heward W.L, Gardner R., III. (1990). Using response cards to increase student participation in an elementary classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 483–490. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1990.23-483

Novakos, I. (2018). Απόψεις των εκπαιδευτικών για το θεσμό της Παράλληλης Στήριξης στην Ελλάδα [The views of teachers about the institution of Parallel Support in Greece]. Theory and Research in the Sciences of Education, 26, 7-32.

Nteropoulou-Nterou, E. (2012). Αποτίμηση της πορείας των νομοθετικών αλλαγών τριάντα χρόνια μετά την ψήφιση του πρώτου νόμου για την ειδική αγωγή στην Ελλάδα [The evaluation of the course of legislative changes thirty years after the adoption of the first law on special education in Greece]. In: A. Zoniou-Sideri, E. Nteropoulou-Nterou, & A. Vlachou-Balafouti. (Eds.), Αναπηρία και Εκπαιδευτική Πολιτική [Disability and Educational Policy]. (pp. 123-151). Athens: Pedio Publications.

Oliver, M. (2009). Αναπηρία και Πολιτική [The Politics of Disablement (Critical Texts in Social Work & the Welfare State]. Athens: Epikentro Publishers.

Papazoglou, M. (2020, May 16). Για μια ουσιαστική εξ’ αποστάσεως εκπαίδευση [For a substantial distance education]. Kathimerini Journal. https://cutt.ly/DodBc6R

Parhoon, K., Movallali, G., Hassanzadeh, S. & Moravej, M. (2014). Attitude of Regular and itinerant Teachers Towards the Inclusion of Hearing Impairment Children. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal, 12 (22), 22-28.

Pavlidis, P. (2019). Η καπιταλιστική αναδιάρθρωση της ανώτατης εκπαίδευσης: Συνέπειες και αντιφάσεις [The capitalist restructuring of higher education: Consequences and contradictions]. Antitetradia tis ekpaideysis, 126, 8-10.

Petretto, D. R., Masala, I., & Masala, C. (2020). Special Educational Needs, Distance Learning, Inclusion and COVID-19. Education Sciences, 10(6), 154-155. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10060154.

Phtiaka, H. (2008). Η ένταξη των παιδιών με ειδικές ανάγκες στο γενικό σχολείο μέσα από τα μάτια των γονιών: Επιτυχίες, προβλήματα και συνεργασία ανάμεσα στην οικογένεια και στο σχολείο [The inclusion of children with special needs in general education schools through the eyes of parents: Successes, problems and collaboration between parents and school] In: H. Phtiaka (Ed.), Περάστε για έναν καφέ: Σχέσεις οικογένειας και σχολείου στην κόψη της διαφορετικότητας [Go for a coffee: Family and school relationships at the edge of diversity] (pp.123-167). Athens: Taxideytis Publications.

Randolph, J. (2007). Meta-analysis of the research on response cards: Effects on test achievement, quiz achievement, participation, and off-task behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9, 113–128. https://doi.org/10.1177/10983007070090020201.

Sakkou, I., & Nteropoulou-Nterou, E. (2016). Απόψεις και εμπειρίες κωφών φοιτητών από την τριτοβάθμια εκπαίδευση [View and experiences of deaf students from higher education] In: A. Zoniou-Sideri, E. Deropoulou-Derou, & K. Papadopoulou (Eds.), Η έρευνα στην ειδική αγωγή, στην ενταξιακή εκπαίδευση και στην αναπηρία [Research in Special Education, inclusive education and disability] (pp. 95-113) (Collective Volum E). Athens: Pedio publications.

Sari, H. (2007). The Influence of an In-service Teacher Training (INSET) Programme on Attitudes towards Inclusion by Regular Classroom Teachers Who Teach Deaf Students in Primary Schools in Turkey. Deafness & Education International, 9(3), 131–146. https://doi.org/10.1179/146431507790559996

Sarris, D., Riga, P., & Zaragas, H. (2018). School teachers’ attitudes toward inclusive education in Greece. European Journal of Special Education Research, 3 (3), 182-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejse.v0i0.1668

Slee, R. (2011). Ενταξιακή εκπαίδευση και εκπαιδευτική μεταρρύθμιση στη νέα εποχή [Inclusive education and education reform in the new era]. In: A. Zoniou-Sideri, & I. Spandagou (Eds.), Εκπαίδευση και Τύφλωση: σύγχρονες τάσεις και προοπτικές [Education and Blindness: Modern trends and perspectives] (pp. 40-56). Athens: Pedio Publications.

Slike, S.B., Berman, P.D., Kline, T., Rebilas, K. & Bosch, E. (2008). Providing Online Course Opportunities for Learners Who are Deaf, Hard of Hearing, or Hearing. American Annals of the Deaf, 153(3), 304–308.

Soulis, S.P. (2008). Ένα σχολείο για όλους. Από την έρευνα στην πράξη. Παιδαγωγική της ένταξης [A school for all. From research to practice. The pedagogy of integration] (Volume B). Athens: Gutenberg Publishers.

Stasinos, D. P. (2016). Ειδική Εκπαίδευση 2020 Plus: Για μια συμπεριληπτική ή ολική εκπαίδευση στο νέο ψηφιακό σχολείο με ψηφιακούς πρωταθλητές [Special Education 2020 plus: For inclusive or total education in the new digital school with digital champions]. Athens: Papazisis Publications.

Takala, M., Pirttimaa, R., & Törmänen, M. (2009). Inclusive special education: the role of special education teachers in Finland. British Journal of Special Education, 36 (3), 162-172. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8578.2009.00432.x.

Tentomas, L. (2017). Παιδιά Εξωτικά, Παιδιά Οικόσιτα: Ανθρωπολογική Μελέτη της Αναπηρίας και της Ειδικής Εκπαίδευσης στην Ελλάδα [Exotic Children, Domestic Children: Anthropological Study of Disability and Special Education in Greece]. Athens: Redmarks Publications.

Toofaninejad, E., Zaraii Zavaraki, E., Dawson, S., Poquet, O., & Sharifi Daramadi, P. (2017). Social media use for deaf and hard of hearing students in educational settings: a systematic review of literature. Deafness & Education International, 19(3-4), 144–161. https://doi.org/10.1080/14643154.2017.1411874.

Vakrou, A., & Dimakos, I. (2016). Απόψεις εκπαιδευτικών σχετικά με την εκπαίδευση κωφών και βαρήκοων μαθητών σε ειδικά σχολεία και σχολεία γενικής εκπαίδευσης [Views of teachers about the education of deaf and hard of hearing students in special schools and general education schools]. Pedagogikos Logos, 1, 33-54.

Viner, R. M., Russell, S. J., Croker, H., Packer, J., Ward, J., Stansfield, C., … Booy, R. (2020). School closure and management practices during coronavirus outbreaks including COVID-19: a rapid systematic review. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 4(5), 397-404. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30095-X.

Vlachopanou, P., & Papadakis, S. (2019). Ο ρόλος των μέσων κοινωνικής δικτύωσης στη συνεργατική μάθηση και στην επίδοση φοιτητών εξ’ αποστάσεως εκπαίδευσης [The role of social media in collaborative learning and the performance of distance learning students]. Open Education: The Journal for Open and Distance Education and Educational Technology, 15(2), 124-143. https://doi.org/10.12681/jode.14897.

Vlachou, A. & Papananou, I. (2018). Experiences and Perspectives of Greek Higher Education Students with Disabilities. Educational Research, 60(2), 206–221. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131881.2018.1453752.

Vlachou, A. & Papananou, P. (2015). Disabled students’ narratives about their schooling experiences. Disability & Society, 30(1), 73-86. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2014.982787.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejse.v6i3.3357

Copyright © 2015 - 2022. European Journal of Special Education Research (ISSN 2501 - 2428) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).