George Botsas, George Grouios


This study examines the effectiveness of Computer – Assisted Instruction (CAI) on mathematical operations of addition and subtraction performance of students diagnosed with Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder and their typical peers, in the context of an online Learning Management System. The mathematical operation performance of students was assessed right before, just after and after three months’ time in “paper and pencil” and CAI conditions in order to determine maintenance of intervention’s effects. Six ADHD students diagnosed by public centers of diagnosis and attending 1st to 3rd grades of elementary school took part in the study. They were facing minor to major difficulties in mathematical operations of addition and subtraction. Twelve typical students of the same age and with no mathematical difficulties also took part. The research method was an experimental 2 (groups) X 4 (conditions) nonequivalent-control group design was created as students were different by ADHD existence. Typical students had significantly better performance in mathematical operations prior, after and in CAI implementation compared to the ADHD students with major problems. Their performance was actually in the same levels with students with ADHD with minor difficulties. Examination of within ADHD subjects revealed significant differences when CAI implemented. CAI found to be an effective instructional strategy on mathematical operations’ performance either of students with ADHD or non-disabled in a “working at home” educational setting. Although all students had gains from CAI implementation, a “Mathew” effect was revealed, as typical and ADHD students with minor difficulties had better performance gains which were maintained more after treatment and a follow up examination after three months.


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computer-assisted instruction, attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder, mathematical operations, software, learning management system, home, educational environment, maintenance

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