Timo Saloviita, Asko Tolvanen


All published scales constructed to measure teacher attitudes towards inclusion have been shown to contain several factors. This study explored the factor structure of the Teacher Attitudes towards Inclusive Education Scale (TAIS) in a population of Finnish basic school teachers (n = 1,764) using confirmatory factor analysis. The TAIS scale was shown to be one-dimensional in this population. However, the result does not automatically generalize to other countries where the school system differs from that of Finland. 


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



inclusive education, Finland, measurement of attitudes, teachers


Avramidis E, Norwich B, 2002. Teachers’ attitudes towards integration /inclusion: a review of the literature. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 17, 129–147. doi: 10.80/08856250210129056

de Boer A, Pijl, S J, Minnaert A, 2011. Regular primary schoolteachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education: a review of the literature. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 15, 331–53. doi:10.1080/13603110903030089

Hu L, Bentler P M, 1999. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modelling, 6, 1–55. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118

Muthén L K, Muthén B O, 1998–2012. Mplus user’s guide. (7th ed.) Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.

Saloviita T, 2015. Measuring pre-service teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education: Psychometric properties of the TAIS scale. Teaching and Teacher Education, 52, 66–72. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2015.09.003

Saloviita T, Schaffus T, 2016. Teacher attitudes towards inclusive education in Finland and Brandenburg, Germany, and the issue of extra work. European Journal of Special Education, 31, 458–471. doi:10.1080/08856257.2016.1194569

Satorra A, Bentler P M, 2001. A scaled difference chi-square test statistic for moment structure analysis. Psychometrika, 66, 507–514. doi:10.1007/BF02296192

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) (1994). The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education. World Conference on Special Needs Education: Access and Quality. Salamanca, Spain 7–10. June 1994. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from:

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) (2009). Policy Guidelines on Inclusion in Education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from:


Copyright © 2015 - 2022. European Journal of Special Education Research (ISSN 2501 - 2428) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).