Debasis Behera, Sneha Vishwanath


Background: Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) is one of the most common causes of impairments in overhead throwing athletes due to high intense and repeated throwing activities. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of Muscle energy technique and Active release technique in overhead throwing athletes with Glenohumeral internal rotation deficits. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 athletes with age group 18-25 were selected for the study and a simple random lottery method was used to divide the sample into three groups; Group A (n=14) received muscle energy technique and conventional therapy, Group B (n=14) received active release technique and conventional therapy, Group C (n=14) received only conventional therapy. Measurements of shoulder internal rotation ROM (by Goniometer) and SPADI (shoulder pain and disability index) were assessed pre- and post-treatment after 4 weeks. Results: The results showed that Group A shows a significant difference in shoulder internal rotation ROM with a p-value <0.05 than Group B and C, but there was no significant difference was found between all the groups in the SPADI score with p-value >0.600. Conclusion: The study concluded that the muscle energy technique is more effective than the active release technique in improving shoulder internal rotation ROM, but both techniques have equally effective in improving shoulder function among athletes with GIRD.


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overhead athletes; glenohumeral internal rotation deficits; muscle energy technique; active release technique

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