Murat Palalı, Yavuz Yıldız


The aim of this study is to analyze and evaluate the determination of trust and loyalty level of basketball fans to their team and to help form strategic sales plan considering the trust and loyalty level of fans to their team. The data from the survey are generated from 283 fans ranging in age from 13 to 71 (205 male, 78 female) who participate in basketball games. As a result of the structural equation modelling, it has been found that brand trust has a positive and strong effect on attitudinal loyalty and attitudinal loyalty has a positive and strong effect on behavioral loyalty. According to the research results, the increase in the brand trust of fans may cause an increase in brand loyalty and thus contributing to the achievement of both financial and marketing aims. The financial aims of sports teams may be listed as profitability, increasing the market share, leading the price, licensed product sales, matchday revenues, increasing concessions/catering and providing high-quality services. On the other hand, the marketing purposes may be listed as increasing recognition, fan/customer retention, gaining new fans, developing new products, strengthening the brand, and increasing the brand value. When considered in these terms, obtaining the trust of the fans has crucial importance.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


brand trust, brand loyalty, sport, basketball

Full Text:



Alpar, R. (2003). Introduction to applied multivariate statistics methods. Ankara: Nobel Publishing.

Anderson, E. W. (1998). Customer satisfaction and word of mouth. Journal of Service Research, 1(1), 5–17.

Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411.

Apostolopoulou, A. (2002). Brand Extensions by US Professional Sport Teams: Motivations and Keys to Success. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 11(4), 205–214.

Backman, S. J., & Crompton, J. L. (1991). Using loyalty matrix to differentiate between high, spurious, latent and loyal participants in two leisure services. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 9(1), 1–17.

Bauer, H. H., Stokburger-Sauer, N. E., & Exler, S. (2008). Brand image and fan loyalty in professional team sport: A refined model and empirical assessment. Journal of Sport Management, 22(2), 205–226.

Beatty, S. E., & Kahle, L. R. (1988). Alternative hierarchies of the attitude-behavior relationship: The impact of brand commitment and habit. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(2), 1–10.

Berry, L. L. (2000). Cultivating service brand equity. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(1), 128–137.

Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2017). Data analysis handbook for social sciences. Statistics, research design SPSS applications and comments. PegemA Publishing.

Chaudhuri, A., & Holbrook, M. B. (2001). The chain of effects from brand trust and brand affect to brand performance: the role of brand loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 65(2), 81–93.

Courneya, K. S., & Carron, A. V. (1992). The home advantage in sport competitions: a literature review. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 14(1), 13–27.

Crosby, P. B. (1990). Let’s talk quality: 96 questions you always wanted to ask Phil Crosby. Plume.

Delgado-Ballester, E., Munuera-Aleman, J. L., & Yague-Guillen, M. J. (2003). Development and validation of a brand trust scale. International Journal of Market Research, 45(1), 35–54.

Dietz-Uhler, B., Harrick, E. A., End, C., & Jacquemotte, L. (2000). Sex differences in sport fan behavior and reasons for being a sport fan. Journal of Sport Behavior, 23(3), 219.

Fink, J. S., Trail, G. T., & Anderson, D. F. (2002). Environmental factors associated with spectator attendance and sport consumption behavior: Gender and team differences. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 11(1).

Funk, D. C., & Pastore, D. L. (2000). Equating attitudes to allegiance: The usefulness of selected attitudinal information in segmenting loyalty to professional sports teams. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 9(4), 175–184.

Garbarino, E., & Johnson, M. S. (1999). The different roles of satisfaction, trust, and commitment in customer relationships. Journal of Marketing, 63(2), 70–87.

Genç, D. A. (1998). Sports Law. Alfa Publishing.

George, T., & Stavros, T. (2013). The role of psychological commitment and attitudinal loyalty on the relationship between involvement and behavioral loyalty of sport fans. The Sport Journal, 1999, 1–16.

Gladden, J. M., & Funk, D. C. (2001). Understanding brand loyalty in professional sport: Examining the link between brand associations and brand loyalty. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 3, 67–91.

Günay, N., & Tiryaki, Ş. (2003). Validity and reliability test for Sport Spectator Identification Scale (SSIS). J. Sports Sci, 1, 14–26.

Gurviez, P., & Korchia, M. (2003). Proposal for a multidimensional brand trust scale. 32nd Emac-Conference-Glasgow, Marketing: Responsible and Relevant, 438–452.

Ha, H.-Y., & Perks, H. (2005). Effects of consumer perceptions of brand experience on the web: Brand familiarity, satisfaction and brand trust. Journal of Consumer Behaviour: An International Research Review, 4(6), 438–452.

Hiscock, J. (2003). Most trusted brands 2002. Marketing, 1, 32–33.

Homburg, C., & Giering, A. (1999). Messung von markenzufriedenheit und markenloyalität [The measurement of brand satisfaction and brand loyalty]. Moderne Markenführung: Grundlagen—Innovative Ansätze—Praktische Umsetzungen [Modern Brand Management: Fundamentals, New Approaches, Implementations], 1089–1100.

Jacoby, J., & Chestnut, R. W. (1978). Brand loyalty: measurement and management. John Wiley & Sons Incorporated.

Jon, D. R. (2005). Brand trust and brand extension acceptance: the relationship. The Journal of Product & Brand Management, 14(1), 4–13.

Keller, K. L. (2003). Strategic Brand Management (Second). Pearson Prentice Hall.

Kennedy, M. S., Ferrell, L. K., & LeClair, D. T. (2001). Consumers’ trust of salesperson and manufacturer: an empirical study. Journal of Business Research, 51(1), 73–86.

Lassar, W; Mittal, B; Sharma, A. (1995). Measuring customer-based brand equity. The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 12(4), 11–19.

Lau, G. T., & Lee, S. H. (1999). Consumers’ trust in a brand and the link to brand loyalty. Journal of Market-Focused Management, 4(4), 341–370.

Mahony, D. F., Madrigal, R., & Howard, D. (2000). Using the psychological commitment to team (PCT) scale to segment sport consumers based on loyalty. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 9(1), 15–25.

Mullin, B. J., Hardy, S., & Sutton, W. A. (2000). Sport marketing 2nd edition. In Champaign (Illinois): Human Kinetics.

Nunnally, J., & Bernstein, I. (1994). Psychological methods. McGraw-Hill.

Pan, P.-L., & Phua, J. (2020). Connecting sponsor brands through sports competitions: an identity approach to brand trust and brand loyalty. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 11(2), 164–184.

Pollard, R., & Pollard, G. (2005). Long-term trends in home advantage in professional team sports in North America and England (1876-2003). Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(4), 337–350.

Rein, I., Kotler, P., & Shields, B. (2007). The elusive fan: Reinventing sports in a crowded marketplace (UE Kaplan, Trans.). Mediacat.

Şahin, A. (2011). In the effects of brand experience and communication on brand loyalty; the role of brand relationship quality. Gebze Institute of High Technology.

Salman, G. G., & Giray, C. (2010). The relationship between motivatıon, which prompts individuals to be soccer fan. Öneri, 9(33), 89–97.

Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., Müller, H., & others. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23–74.

Shank, M. D., & Beasley, F. M. (1998). Fan or fanatic: Refining a measure of sports involvement. Journal of Sport Behavior, 21(4), 435.

Simmons, R. (2006). The demand for spectator sports. In Handbook on the economics of sport. Edward Elgar Cheltenham, England and Northampton, MA.

Smith, A. (2008). Introduction to sport marketing (1st ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann.

Tapçı, C. P. (2006). The effect of brand value on industrial buyers behaviors. İstanbul Technical University.

Trenberth, L., & Garland, R. (2007). Sport and consumer buying behavior. In The Marketing of Sport, Prentice Hall.

Tsiotsou, R. H. (2013). Sport team loyalty: integrating relationship marketing and a hierarchy of effects. Journal of Services Marketing, 27(6), 458–471.

Vieira, C. B., & Sousa, B. (2020). The brand attachment and consumer behaviour in sports marketing contexts: the case of football fans in Portugal. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 20(1–2), 29–46.

Wann, D. L. (1997). Sport psychology. Prentice Hall.

Yıldız, Y. (2017). Customer based brand equity on soccer teams. Nobel Academic Publishing.

Yıldız, Y., Ay, C., & Özbey, S. (2012). Consumer based brand equity on soccer teams: a model suggestion. Ege Academic Review, 12, 1–10.

Zhang, J. J., Pease, D. G., Hui, S. C., & Michaud, T. J. (1995). Variables affecting the spectator decision to attend NBA games. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 4(4), 29–39.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Murat Palalı, Yavuz Yıldız

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015 - 2023. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).