Sukanta Goswami, V. K. Srivastava, Yajuvendra Singh Rajpoot


The main aim of this study was to evaluating the various relationships of the identified biomechanical variables towards the performance of spin bowling and evaluating the contribution of identified biomechanical variables and construction of predictive model. Five interuniversity level leg-spin bowlers were recruited from LNIPE, India, and their bowling actions were captured by three video cameras, in a field setting. A value of α = 0.05 was used for all tests as the criterion to determine the presence or absence of significance. Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient (r) was used for evaluating the various relationships of the selected variables towards the performance of spin bowling. Significant relationship was found between the Angle of Release (r = 0.965, P < 0.05), Average Velocity (r = 0.541, P < 0.05), Elbow joint Right (r = -0.392, P < 0.05), Hip Joint left (r = 0.402, P < 0.05), and Shoulder joint left (r = -0.383, P < 0.05). Multiple Linear Regression was used for evaluating the contribution of identified biomechanical variables and construction of predictive model. The regression equation was reliable as the value of R2 was 0.945. The two variables selected in that regression equation explain 94.5% of the total variability in lateral deviation of ball was good. Since F-value for that regression model was highly significant, the model was reliable. This study provides further understanding of the biomechanical variables are associated with skilled performance in cricket leg-spin bowling, which coaches should consider when training less-skilled performers.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



kinematics, cricket, ball deviation, regression


Abernethy, B. (1981). Mechanisms of skill in cricket batting. Australian Journal of Sports Medicine, 13(1), 3-10.

Aginsky, K. D., & Noakes, T. D. (2010). Why it is difficult to detect an illegally bowled cricket delivery with either the naked eye or usual two-dimensional video analysis. British journal of sports medicine, 44(6), 420-425.

Beach, A., Ferdinands, R.E.D., & Sinclair, P. (2012). Measuring spin characteristics of a cricket ball. ISBS-Conference Proceedings Archive, 1(1), 218-221.

Brayshaw, I. (1978). The elements of cricket. Adelaide: Griffin Press Limited.

Burden, A. M., & Bartlett, R. M. (1990). A kinematic investigation of elite fast and fast medium cricket bowlers. In M. Nosek, D. Sojka, W. E. Morrison, & P. Susanka (Eds.), Proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium of the Society of Biomechanics in Sports (pp. 41-46).

Cricket Australia (2005). Australian Cricket Coach, Your complete guide to coaching cricket. Cricket Australia

Cricket Australia (2010). Level 2 coaching course manual, 2010. Cricket Australia

Chin, A., Elliott, B., Alderson, J., Lloyd, D., & Foster, D. (2009). The off-break and “doosra”: Kinematic variations of elite and sub-elite bowlers in creating ball spin in cricket bowling. Sports Biomechanics, 8(3), 187-198.

Cricket Australia (CA). (2006). Level 3 coaching manual. Brisbane, Queensland: CA.

Daish, C. B. (1972). The physics of ball games. London: English Universities Press.

Davis, K., & Blanksby, B. (1976). A cinematographic analysis of fast bowling in cricket. Australian Journal for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 71 (suppl.), 9-15.

Elliott, B. C., Foster, D. H., & Gray, S. (1986). Biomechanical and physical factors influencing fast bowling. Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18(1), 16-21.

Elliott, B. C., Alderson, J. A., & Denver, E. R. (2007). System and modelling errors in motion analysis: implications for the measurement of the elbow angle in cricket bowling. Journal of Biomechanics, 40(12), 2679-2685.

Ferdinands, R., & Kersting, U. (2007). An evaluation of biomechanical measures of bowling action legality in cricket. Sports Biomechanics, 6(3), 315-333.

Ferdinands, R. E. D., Broughan, K. A., Round, H., & Marshall, R. N. (2001). A fifteen-segment 3D rigid body model of bowling in cricket. In R. Muller, H. Gerber, and A. Stacoff (Eds.), Proceedings of the XVIII Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics [CD ROM] Zurich: ETH.

Foster, D., John, D., Elliott, B., Ackland, T., & Fitch, K. (1989). Back injuries to fast bowlers in cricket: a prospective study. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 23(3), 150-154.

Lloyd, D. G., Alderson, J., & Elliott, B. C. (2000). An upper limb kinematic model for the examination of cricket bowling: A case study of Mutiah Muralitharan. Journal of sports sciences, 18(12), 975-982.

Lloyd, D., Reid, S., Elliott, B., & Alderson, J. (2005). Murali's doosra: technology and the law in cricket. Sport Health, 23(3), 13.

Loram, L.C., McKinon, W., Wormgoor, S., Rogers, G.G., Nowak, I., & Harden, LM. (2005). Determinants of ball release speed in schoolboy fast-medium bowlers in cricket. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 45 (4), 483-90.

McLeod, P., & Jenkins, S. (1991). Timing accuracy and decision time in high-speed ball games. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 22(3-4), 279-295.

MCC (2000). Laws of cricket – 2000 code. Lords, London: Marylebone Cricket Club (available at: www.lords.org/cricket/laws.asp).

Mehta, R. D. (2005). An overview of cricket ball swing. Sports Engineering, 8(4), 181-192.

Mehta, R. D., & Pallis, J. M. (2001). Sports ball aerodynamics: effects of velocity spin and surface roughness. Minerals, Metals and Materials Society/AIME, Materials and Science in Sports (USA), 185-197.

Philpott, P. (1973). How to play cricket with special advice for cricket coaches. North Sydney: Jack Pollard Pty Ltd.

Philpott, P. (1978). Cricket fundamentals. Hong Kong: Everbest Printing.

Portus, M., Rosemond, C., & Rath, D. (2006). Fast bowling arm action and the illegal delivery law in men’s high performance cricket matches. Sports Biomechanics, 5(2), 215–230.

Robinson, G., & Robinson, I. (2013). The motion of an arbitrarily rotating spherical projectile and its application to ball games. Physica Scripta, 88(1), 018101–018117.

Sayers, A. T., & Lelimo, N. J. (2007). Aerodynamic coefficients of stationary and spinning cricket balls. R & D Journal of the South African Institution of Mechanical Engineering, 23(2), 25-31.

Spratford, W., & Davison, J. (2010, June). Measurement of ball flight characteristics in finger-spin bowling. In 1 of 1-Conference of Science, Medicine & Coaching in Cricket 2010 (p. 140).

SPSS Inc. SPSS for Windows, Version 20.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc.

Stockill, N. and Bartlett, R. (1993). A temporal and kinematic comparison of junior and senior international cricket bowlers. In Abstracts of the International Society of Biomechanics XIVth Congress, Paris: International Society of Biomechanics. 1290-1291.

Such, P. (2007). The complete guide to bowling off spin. [online]. http://www.metarasa.com/cricket/spin/the-complete-guide-to-bowling-off-spin/

Verma, J. P. (2011). Statistical Methods for Sports and Physical Education, Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Ltd, New Delhi.

Western Australian Cricket Association (WACA). (2003). Level 2 coaching manual. Perth, Western Australia: WACA.

Wilkins, B. (1997). The bowler’s art. London: A&C Black.

Woolmer, B. (2009). The art and science of cricket. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books.

Woolmer, B., Noakes, T., & Moffett, H. (2008). Bob Woolmer’s art and science of cricket (1st Ed.). Sydney: New Holland.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejpe.v0i0.387


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Sukanta Goswami, V. K. Srivastava, Yajuvendra Singh Rajpoot

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015 - 2023. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).