TIME TO EXHAUSTION AT 90 AND 100% VO2MAX AND PHYSIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF 3 KM PERFORMANCE IN ELITE CYCLISTS

Zacharogiannis Elias, Pilianidis Theophilos, Dallas Giorgos, Mantzuranis Nikos, Argitaki Polixeni, Athanasia Smirniotou, Georgios Paradisis

Abstract


The minimal power that elicits VO2max and the time to exhaustion (tlimit) at this workload appear to determine cyclists’ endurance capabilities, analyze performance and help coaches to design training. Data in the literature are limited so as to elucidate this. The aim of this study was to investigate the tlimit at the power output, which corresponds to 90 (tlimit 90) and 100% VO2max (tlimit 100) in elite endurance cyclists. The contribution of tlimit in 3 km indoor individual time trial was also studied. Subjects were eleven elite male road cyclists (age 17.7  0.5 years, body mass 66.8  4.9 kg, body height 176.3  7.4 cm, VO2max 69.77  2.58 ml.kg-1.min-1). Power output at 90 and 100% VO2max was determined by continuous incremental testing. This protocol had steps of 2 min and increments of 30 W. The exhaustive trials tlimit 90 or tlimit 100 were performed in random order at least five days apart. Five days after the last exhaustive trial, cyclists performed an individual 3 km time trial on an indoor wooden track. Mean sd, tlimit 90 and tlimit 100 were 16:27.73  07:46.6 and 4:48.6  00:53.2 min:sec. Time to exhaustion at tlimit 90 and tlimit 100 ranged between 07:00-30:15 and 03:10-06:00 min:sec, respectively. Tlimit 100, tlimit 90 and VO2max (ml.min-1) did not correlate with 3 km cycling performance (r = 0.08, 0.16 and –0.59, p > 0.05). Tlimit 90 was inversely related (r = –0.49, p = 0.1) with VO2max (ml.min-1). Only power output which corresponded to ventilatory threshold and VO2max correlated significantly with 3 km performance (r = –0.83 and –0.80, p < 0.01). The results of this study indicate that: a) if cyclists’ training intensity is based on %VO2max, individual determination of the tlimit at the %VO2max has to be considered due to a wide range of tlimit to exhaustion; b) 3 km performance directly depends on the power that corresponds with ventilatory threshold and VO2max.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


Keywords


cycling performance, peak power output, ventilatory threshold, VO2max, exhaustion

Full Text:

PDF

References


Atkinson G, Davison R, Jeukendrup A, Passfield L. (2003). Science and cycling: current knowledge and future directions for research. J Sports Sci, 48, 767-787

Balmer J, Davison R, Bird S. (2000). Peak power predicts performance power during an outdoor 16.1-km cycle exercise trial. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 32, 1485-1490

Bentley J, McNaughton R, Thompson D, Vleck E, Batterham M. (2001). Peak power output, the lactate threshold, and time trial performance in cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 33(12), 2077-2081

Billat V, Faina M, Sardella F, Marini C, Fanton F, Lupo S, Faccini P, De Angelis M, Koralszstein J, Dalmonte A. (1996). A comparison of time to exhaustion at VO2max in elite cyclists, kayak paddlers, swimmers and runners. Ergonomics, 39(2), 267-277

Billat V, Renoux J, Pinoteau J, Petit B, Koralsztein J. (1995). Times to exhaustion at 90, 100 and 105% at the VO2max (maximal aerobic speed) and critical speed in elite long distance runners. Arch PhysiolBioch, 103(2), 129-135

Billat V, Flecher B, Petit B, Muriaux G, Koralsztein J. (1999). Interval training at VO2max effects on aerobic performance and overtraining markers. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 31, 156-163

Billat VL, Morton RH, Blondel N, Berthoin S, BocquetV,Koralsztein JP, Barstow TJ. (2000). Oxygen kinetics and modelling of time to exhaustion whilst running at various velocities at maximal oxygen uptake. Eur J Appl Physiol, 82, 178–187

Bishop D, Jenkins D, Mackinnon L. (1998). The relationship between plasma lactate parameters, Wpeak and 1-h cycling performance in women. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 30(8), 1270-1275

Borg G, Ottoson D. (1986). The perception of exertion in physical work. London: McMillan Press, (Wenner-Gren Center international symposium series; vol 46.)

Caiozzo V, Davis J, Ellis J, Azus J, Vandagriff R, Prietto C, McMaster W. A (1982). Comparison of gas exchange indices used to detect the anaerobic threshold. J ApplPhysiol: Respiratory and Environmental Exercise Physiology,53, 1184-1189

Caputo F, Mello M, Denadai B. (2003). Oxygen uptake kinetics and the time to exhaustion in cycling and running: a comparison between trained and untrained subjects. Arc PhysiolBioch, 111(5), 461-466

Coyle E. (2000). Physical activity as a metabolic stressor. Am J Clin Nutr, 72(2 suppl), 512-520

Davis J. (1985). Anaerobic threshold: review of the concept and directions for future research. Med Sci Sports Exerc,17, 6-21

Faria E, Parker D, Faria E. (2005). The science of cycling. Sports Medicine, 35(4), 285-312

Gibbala MJ, McGee SL. (2008). Metabolic adaptations to short-term high-intensity interval training: a little pain for a lot of gain? Exerc Sport Sci Rev, 36(2), 58-63

Hawley J, Noakes T. (1992). Peak power output predicts maximal oxygen uptake and performance time in trained cyclists.Eur J Appl Physiol, 65, 79-83

Hill D, Poole D, Smith J. (2002). The relationship between power and the time to achieve VO2max. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 34(4), 709-714

Hill D, Rowell A. (1996a). Significance of time to exhaustion during exercise at the velocity associated with VO2max. Eur J Appl Physiol, 72, 383-386

Hill D, Rowell, A. (1996b). Responses to exercise at the velocity associated with VO2max. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 29(1), 113-116

Hill D, Williams C, Burt S.(1997). Responses to exercise at 92% and 100% of the velocity associated with VO2max. Int J of Sports Med, 18(5), 325-329

Hoogeveen A, Hoogsteen G. (1999). The ventilatory threshold, heart rate, and endurance performance: relationships in elite cyclists.Int J Sports Med, 20(2), 114-117

Jones A, Carter H. (2000). The effect of endurance training on parameters of aerobic fitness. Sports Medicine, 29(6), 373-386

Kuipers H, Verstappen F, Keizer H, Guerten P, Van Kraneburg G. (1985). Variability of aerobic performance in the laboratory and its physiological correlates. Int J Sports Med, 6, 197-201

Laursen P, Jenkins D. (2002). The scientific basis of high intensity interval training. Sports Med, 32(1), 53-73

Leclair E, Mucci P, Borell B, Baquet G, Carter H, Berthoin S. (2010). Time to exhaustion and time spent at a high percentage of VO2max in severe intensity domain in children and adults. J Strength Cond Res, 25, 1-8

Linsay F, Hawley J, Myburgh K. (2002). Improved athletic performance in highly trained cyclists after interval training. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 28, 1427-1434

Messonnier L, Freund H, Denis C, Dormois D, Dufour AB, Lacour JR. (2002). Time to exhaustion at VO2max is related to the lactate exchange and removal abilities. Int J Sports Med, 23, 433-438

Midgley A, McNaughton L, Wilkinson M. (2006). Is there an optimal training intensity for enhancing the maximal oxygen uptake of distance runners? Empirical research findings, current opinions physiological rational and practical recommendations. Sports Medicine, 36, 117-132

Morton H, Billat V. (2000). Maximal endurance time at VO2max. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 32(8), 1496-1504

Pereira-Costa V, De Matos D, Coelho Pertence L, Almeida Neves J, De Lima J. (2011). Reproducibility of cycling time to exhaustion at VO2max in competitive Cyclists. J ExerPhysiol, 14(1), 28-34

Poole D, Ward S, Gardner G, Whipp B. A (1988). Metabolic and respiratory profile for prolonged exercise in man. Ergonomics, 31, 1265-1279

Smith T, McNaughton L, Marsshall K. (1999). Effects of 4-wk training using Vmax/Tmax on vVO2max and performance in athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 31, 892-896

Stepto N, Hawley J, Dennis S, Hopkins W.(1999). Effects of different interval-training programs on cycling time-trial performance.Med Sci Sports Exerc, 31(5), 736-741

Sucec A. (1982). The reproducibility of the AT by venous blood lactate and gas exchange measurements. Med Sci Sports Exerc,14(2), 127

Tabata I, Nishimura K, Kouzaki M. (1997). Effects of moderate intensity endurance and high intensity intermittent on anaerobic and VO2max. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 28, 1327-1330

Wasserman K, Whipp B, Koyal S, Beaver W. (1973). Anaerobic threshold and respiratory gas exchange during exercise. J Appl Physiol,35, 236-243

Wenger H, Bell G. (1986). The Interactions of intensity, frequency and duration of Exercise training in altering cardiorespiratory Fitness. Sports Med, 3(5), 346-356

Whipp B, Wasserman K. (1972). Oxygen uptake kinetics for various intensities of constant-load work. J Appl Physiol, 33, 351-356.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejpe.v6i10.3565

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Zacharogiannis Elias, Pilianidis Theophilos, Dallas Giorgos, Mantzuranis Nikos, Argitaki Polixeni, Athanasia Smirniotou, Georgios Paradisis

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).