Manchanda Sukriti, Sehdev Abhishta, Saxena Shobhit


The ratio between index finger and ring finger has been found to be a major contributing factor in many sports. Studies have suggested that 2D:4D ratio is negatively correlated with prenatal testosterone, which is further related to superior sports performance. Hence, the present study is a further development in this direction and tries to explore the association of 2D:4D ratio with grip strength and performance in Racquet sport players. 45 Racquet sport players from various academies were measured for 2D:4D ratio, hand grip strength, maximum anaerobic power, and agility and performance level. It was found that 2D:4D ratio was positively correlated with agility and negatively correlated with hand grip strength and maximum anaerobic power. However, no statistically significant relationship was found between 2D:4D ratio and performance in Racquet sport players. The significant results can be investigated further for talent identification and sporting abilities in Racquet-sport players.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



agility, handgrip strength, maximum anaerobic power

Full Text:



Babalola J.F. Effects of 8-weeks circuit training programme on physiological and performance characteristics of university Racquet game players. Journal of Asian Scientific Research. 2011;1(4):143-9 [cited: 23rd September 2018] Available from. URL,

Munivrana G., Filipčić A., Filipčić T. Relationship of speed, agility, neuromuscular power, and selected anthropometrical variables and performance results of male and female junior tennis players. Collegium antropologicum. 2015 Jul 14;39(Supplement 1):109-16. [cited: 23rd September 2018] Available from. URL,

Jaworski J., Żak M. Identification of determinants of sports skill level in badminton players using the multiple regression model. Human Movement. 2016 Mar 1;17(1):21-8. DOI: 10.1515/humo-2016-0004.

Layton J.S., DeBeliso M. Is There a Relationship between Maximal Grip Strength and Racquetball Success? A Pilot Study. 2017;X(Y):1-11. [cited: 23rd September 2018] Available from. URL, Layton.pdf

Koley S., Goud S. Correlations of handgrip strength with selected anthropometric variables in Indian junior and senior badminton players. Int. J. Recent Sci. Res. 2016; 7:10351-5. [cited: 23rd September 2018] Available from. URL,

Nanda B., Samanta P.P. The second to fourth digit ratio: a measure of hand grip strength?. International Journal of Advances in Medicine. 2017 Sep 22; 4(5):1250- 4. DOI:

Habibi E., Kazemi M., Dehghan H., Mahaki B., Hassanzadeh A. Hand grip and pinch strength: Effects of workload, hand dominance, age, and body mass index. 2013;29(1):363-7. DOI:

Paul M., Biswas S.K., Shukla G., Sandhu J.S. Effect of Agility Training on Tennis Performance. science in tennis. 2011;16(1):21-25. [cited: 23rd september 2018] Available from. URL, fect_of_Agility_training_on_tennis/links/579e761308ae6a2882f53db3.pdf

Azam M.Z., Norman W.M., Linoby A., Sariman H., Zaki M.S., Afandi A, Mohamed M.N. Digitus Secundus and Digitus Medicinalis Ratio: Examination of Sporting Ability Predictor in Male Youth. In Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Sports Science, Exercise, Engineering and Technology 2014 (ICoSSEET 2014) 2014 (pp. 135-142). Springer, Singapore. DOI: 107-7_14

Malas M.A., Dogan S., Evcil E.H., Desdicioglu K. Fetal development of the hand, digits and digit ratio (2D: 4D). Early human development. 2006 Jul 1;82(7):469- 75. DOI:

Paul S.N., Kato B.S., Hunkin J.L., Vivekanandan S., Spector T.D. The big finger: the second to fourth digit ratio is a predictor of sporting ability in women. British journal of sports medicine. 2006 Dec 1; 40(12):981-3. DOI:

Manning J.T., Morris L., Caswell N. Endurance running and digit ratio (2D: 4D): implications for fetal testosterone effects on running speed and vascular health. American Journal of Human Biology: The Official Journal of the Human Biology Association. 2007 May; 19(3):416-21. DOI:

Longman D., Stock J.T., Wells J.C. Digit ratio (2D: 4D) and rowing ergometer performance in males and females. American journal of physical anthropology. 2011 Mar;144(3):337-41. DOI:

Bennett M., Manning J.T., Cook C.J., Kilduff L.P. Digit ratio (2D: 4D) and performance in elite rugby players. Journal of sports sciences. 2010 Nov 1;28(13):1415-21. DOI:

Keshavarz M., Bayati M., Farzad B., Dakhili A., Agha-Alinejad H. The Second to Fourth Digit Ratio in Elite and Non-Elite Greco-Roman Wrestlers. Journal of human kinetics. 2017 Dec 28;60(1):145-51. DOI: 2017-0097

Sudhakar H.H., Majumdar P., Umesh V., Panda K. Second to fourth digit ratio is a predictor of sporting ability in elite Indian male kabaddi players. Asian journal of sports medicine. 2014 Sep;5(3):1-4. DOI: 10.5812/asjsm.23073

Tambe M.K., Turankar A.V., Lingawar S., Dhokane N.B., Pophali N.P., Kherde P.M., Bajaj V. Influence of digit ratio (2D: 4D) on reaction time and athletic sprint performance: A short term pilot study. February 2018; 5(2): 17-21. DOI:

Bellace J.V., Healy D., Besser M.P., Byron T., Hohman L. Validity of the Dexter Evaluation System's Jamar dynamometer attachment for assessment of hand grip strength in a normal population. Journal of hand therapy. 2000 Jan 1;13(1):46-51. DOI:

Hone L.S., McCullough M.E. 2D: 4D ratios predict hand grip strength (but not hand grip endurance) in men (but not in women). Evolution and Human Behavior. 2012 Nov 1;33(6):780-9. DOI:

Sassi R.H., Dardouri W., Yahmed M.H., Gmada N., Mahfoudhi M.E., Gharbi Z. Relative and absolute reliability of a modified agility T-test and its relationship with vertical jump and straight sprint. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2009 Sep 1;23(6):1644-51. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b425d2

Koziel S., Kociuba M., Chakraborty R., Ignasiak Z. Physical fitness and digit ratio (2d: 4d) in male students from Wroclaw, Poland. Collegium antropologicum. 2017 Mar 7;41(1):25-30. [cited: 23rd September 2018] Available from URL,

Manning J.T., Hill M.R. Digit ratio (2D: 4D) and sprinting speed in boys. American Journal of Human Biology: The Official Journal of the Human Biology Association. 2009 Mar; 21(2):210-3. DOI:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Manchanda Sukriti, Sehdev Abhishta, Saxena Shobhit

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).