Michalis Proios


The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of practice style teaching on motor skill and Knowledge performance, of a basic gymnastics skill, such as the cartwheel, in high school students, of different gender and skill level. Participants were 27 girls and 41 boys of first grade high school, belonging in three different classes. They were taught the cartwheel task under school conditions throughout twelve (12) lessons, 30 minutes each, 2 times per week. The skill performance was recorded and evaluated prior, post and two weeks after the end of the program. Based on the initial compound measurement scores, students were grouped into three equal groups of low, medium and high skill. Knowledge outcomes were measured by the use of a written test prior and following the treatment phase of the study. The 2x3x3 analysis of variance (Gender x Skill Level x Test) with repeated measurements in the last factor showed that all the groups improved their motor and knowledge performance on the cartwheel. No significant differences between girls and boys were uncovered on the skill execution or skill knowledge. However, significant differences between student's skill level on motor performance were revealed: Low skilled learners improved to a greater extent, compared to those of medium and high skill, particularly as for the skill outcome.


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teaching styles, motor learning, gymnastics skills, cognitive understanding

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