Ayşegül Yapıcı, Çiğdem Bacak, Eylem Çelik


Shooting is a high precision sport, where high level performance requires several physical capacities, striking control, experience, posture control and skill of a shooter. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the shooting performance and physical capacities of the competing shooters. A total of 19 shooters participated as volunteers in the Turkish Championship youth category. Anthropometric measurements and shooting scores were recorded. Hand grip strength, flexibility, reaction time, dynamic balance, maximal oxygen consumption and respiratory function tests were applied. The correlation between shooting performance and respiratory function parameters, motoric characteristics were examined by Pearson Correlation analysis. A statistically significant correlation was found between the flexibility and shooting performance (p<0.05). There was a statistically significant correlation between right-left hand grip strengths and shooting performance (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant correlation between shooting performance and reaction time, respiratory function parameters, endurance, balance parameters (p>0.05). Motoric properties and respiratory control are important factors for successful shooting. The results of this study can provide for trainers for determining the developments and deficiencies of the different age group shooters at the point of preparation of the training plan by determining the motor characteristics during the season.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



physical capacities; breathing; shooting performance

Full Text:



Aalto H, Pyykko I, Ilmarinen R, Kahkönen E, Starck J, 1990. Postural stability in shooters. ORL, 52(4), 232-238.

Anderson G.S, Plecas D.B, 2000. Predicting shooting scores from physical performance data. International Journal of Police Science and Management. 23(4), 525-537.

Arinci I.N, Ceceli E, Durukan B.P, Erdem R, Yorgancioglu R, 2002. Grip strength: Effect of Hand Dominance. Singapore Medicine Journal. 43 (5), 234-237.

Badau A, Badau D, Serban C, Tarcea M, Victoria R.V, 2018. Wellness integrative profile 10 (WIP10) - an integrative educational tool of nutrition, fitness and health. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. 68(6), 882-887.

Balasubramaniam R, Riley M.A, Turvey M.T, 2000. Specificity of postural sway to the demands of a precision task. Gait and Posture, 11, 1224.

Belinchon F, 2010. Estudio médico deportivo de las modalidades de tiro olímpico. Universidad Complutense de Madrid: Madrid.

Benson A.J, Spencer M.B, Scott J.R, 1986. Thresholds for the detection of whole-body linear movement in the horizontal plane. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine. 57, 1088-96.

Charles M.T, Copay A.G, 2003. Acquisition of marksmanship and gun handling skills through basic law enforcement training in an American police department. International Journal of Police Science and Management. 5(1), 16-30.

Copay A.G, Charles M.T, 2001. The influence of grip strength on handgun marksmanshipin basic law enforcement training. International Journal of Police Science and Management, 24(1), 32-39.

Coughlan G.F, Fullam K, Delahunt E, Gissane C, Caulfield B.M, 2012. ‘A Comparison between Performance on Selected Directions of the Star Excursion Balance Test and the Y Balance Test’. Journal of Athletic Training. 47(4): 366-371.

Dusa F.S, Badau A, Badau D, Trambitas C, Brinzaniuc K, 2017. Investigating the Deformation Parameters of PVC Fitness Balls in Relation to the Height and Body Mass Index of the Users. Materiale Plastice. 54(4), 606-609.

Era P, Konttinen N, Mehto P, Saarela P, Lyytinen H, 1996. Postural stability and skilled performance-a study on top-level and naive rifle shooters. Journal of Biomechanics. 29(3), 301-306.

Eurofit Tests of Physical Fitness, 1993. 2nd ed. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, Committee for the Development of Sport.

Fitzpatrick R, McCloskey D.I, 1994. Proprioceptive, visual and vestibular thresholds for the perception of sway during standing in humans. The Journal of Physiology. 478, 173-86.

González Chas J, 1997. La preparación del tirador: un estudio completo del tiro con arma corta. La Coruña: Eurotra.

Gorucu A, Tokay B, Badau A, 2017. The effects of three different types of exercises on aerobic and anaerobic power. Physical education of students. 21(4), 152-157.

Horak F.B, Shupert C.L, Dietz V, Horstmann G, 1994. Vestibular and somatosensory contributions to responses to head and body displacements in stance. Experimental Brain Research. 100, 93-106.

İskender T, 2010. The effects of the special training programme applied to the fire gun shooters on psychomotor performance. PhD Thesis, Institute of Health Scıences, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

Kayıhan G, Ersöz F, Özkan A, Koz M, 2013. Relationship between efficiency of pistol shooting and selected physical-physiological parameters of poliçe. International Journal of Police Science and Management. 4(36), 819-833.

Konttinen N, Lyytinen H, Viitasalo J, 1998. Preparatory heart rate patterns in competitive rifle shooting. Journal of Sports Science. 16(3), 235-242.

Léger L, Gadoury C, 1989. Validity of the 20 m shuttle run test with 1 min stages to predict VO2max in adults. Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences. 14(1):21-6.

Massion J, 1994. Postural control system. Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 4, 877-87.

Mon D, 2006. Objetivos y ventajas de la preparación física en el tiro olímpico: una primera aproximación. Tiro Olímpico, 60: 18-21.

Mon D, 2009. El trabajo de la fuerza: Bases para su aplicacion en el entrenamiento del tiro. Tiro Olímpico, 70: 22-28.

Mononen K, Konttinen N, Viitasalo J, Era P, 2007. Relationships between postural balance, rifle stability and shooting accuracy among novice rifle shooters. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. 17(2), 180-185.

National Rifle Association of America, 2008. Pistol coach school student study guide, Fairfax, VA.

Norton, K, Whittingham N, Carter L, Kerr D, Gore C, Jones M, 2004. Measurement Techniques in Anthropometry, A Textbook of Body Measurement for Sports and Health Courses. Australia: University of New South Wales P Press.

NSSF, 2009. A Parent’s Guide to Recreational Shooting for Youngsters, National Shooting Sports Foundation Publication, Newtown, CT.

Özer K, 2001. Physical Fitness, Nobel Publisher, Ankara.

Ranes B, Lawson B.D, King M, Dailey J, 2014. Effects of Rifle Handling, Target Acquisition, and Trigger Control on Simulated Shooting Performance, 30.

Rodd D, Leasure-Woodburn M, Wilson G, 2010. The effects of grip strength and firearm discharge. Indiana Law Journal. 1(8), 1-11.

Sporis G, Vucetic V, Jovanovic M, Jukic I, Omrcen D, 2011. Reliability and factorial validity of flexibility tests for team sports: method paper. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 25(9), 1168-1176.

Tang W, Zhang W, Huang C, Young M, Hwang I, 2008. Postural tremor and control of the upper limb in air pistol shooters. Journal of Sports Science. 26:14, 1579-1587.

Tremayne P, Barry R.J, Burke S, 1993. From novices to experts in pistol shooting: what the researchers say. Sports Coaching. 16, 37-41.

Vuckovic G, Dopsaj M, 2007. Predicting efficiency of situational pistol shooting on the basis of motor abilities of the students of academy of criminalistic and police studies. Serbian Journal of Sports Science. 1 (1-4), 29-42.

Winter D.A, Patla A.E, Prince F, Ishac M, Gielo-Perczak K, 1998. Stiffness control of balance in quiet standing. Neurophysiology. 80(12), 11-21.

Zatsiorsky V, Aktov A, 1990. Biomechanics of highly precise movements: the aiming process in air rifle shooting. Journal of Biomechanics. 23, 35-41.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Ayşegül Yapıcı, Çiğdem Bacak, Eylem Çelik

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).