Mehmet Şirin Güler, Süleyman Erim Erhan


This paper aims to evaluate the levels of mental ability of licensed athletes who are actively engaged in sports at branch level in Turkey. A total of 340 athletes, including 116 women and 224 men, from various regions of Turkey who are actively engaged in sports at elite level in different branches voluntarily participated in the survey which evaluates their levels and techniques of mental training. It was considered important that athletes participated in the survey should be licensed and importance of the study was emphasized to them. The survey model was used in this study. Current information related to research problem was systematically given by scanning of relevant literature, so a theoretical framework on the subject was created. First of all, a twelve-question personal information form developed by researcher was applied. Ottawa Mental Skills Assessment tool (OMSAT-3) which is developed by Durand-Bush, Salmela and Green-Demers (2001) and adapted to Turkish language by Erhan, Güler, Ağduman and Gerek was applied to evaluate the levels of athletes’ mental ability. In the adaptation phase, the scale was applied to 220 athletes and internal consistency value was found to be 0.94. The scale consists of 48 items and 12 subscales and these subscales are evenly divided into four items. The scale consists of a total of 48 items and constructed on a 7-point Likert-type. The scoring was formed from 1 to 7 according to the statements, “Strongly disagree”, “Disagree”, “Slightly disagree”, “Neither agree nor disagree”, “Agree”, “Slightly agree” and “Strongly agree”. Frequency Analysis was applied to determine the demographic characteristics of participants and Shapiro-Wilk Test was applied in order to decide whether the questionnaires are suitable to normal distribution and Mann-Whitney U test was applied in order to determine the dimensions according to parameters such as gender, marital status, and type of sports, level of contact and level of sport. Kruskal-Wallis H test was applied for analysis of the dimensions in terms of age, sports age and educational level. Finally, correlation analysis of Spearman was used in order to determine the relation between sub-dimensions of total satisfaction score. The significance level (p<0.05) was accepted in analysis. As a result, there is a significant difference in mental ability dimensions of active athletes in different branches according to their mental ability levels and variables such as age, type of sports, sports level and sports age. Therefore, it is observed that mental ability levels of athletes in different branches vary according to these variables.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter



mental ability, sports, mental development / mental yetenek, spor, zihinsel gelişim


Aktepe K. (2006). Sporda Zihinsel Antrenmanın Önemi ve Ferdi Milli Sporcuların Zihinsel Antrenman Bilgi ve Uygulama Düzeylerinin Tespiti. (Yayımlanmış Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Niğde: Niğde Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.

Aktop, A. (2008). Biyolojik Geribildirimle Zihinsel Antrenman Yönteminin Dart Performansına Etkisinin İncelenmesi. (Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi). Antalya: Akdeniz Üniversitesi

Altıntaş A., Akalan C. (2008). “Zihinsel Antrenman ve Yüksek Performans”. Spormetre Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, VI (1), 39-43.

Anshel, M. H. (1990). Sport Psychology, From Theory to Practise. Arizona: Publishers Scottsdale.

Beşiktaş Y. (2012). Sporda Zihinde Canlandırmak. 1. Baskı, İstanbul: Beyaz Yayınları.

Burton, D (1993). Goal Setting İn Sport. In R.N. Singer, M. Murphey, & L.K. Tennant (Eds), Handbook of Research On Sport (Pp. 467-491). New York: Macmillan.

Dr. Ikai ve Dr. A.H. Steinhaus. (1961) Some Factors Modifying The Expression Of Human Strength

Durand-Bush N., Salmela J.H., Green-Demers I., (2001). “The Ottawa Mental Skills Assessment Tool (OMSAT-3)”. Sport Psychologist, 15, 1–19.

Erhan E, Güler MŞ, Ağduman F, Gerek Z. (2015) Ottawa Mental Yetenek Değerlendirme Ölçeği - 3’ ün Türkçe Geçerlilik Confidenceirlik Çalışması. e-Kafkas Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi. Cilt 2 sayı 2.

Fallby J., (2003). “Social Support And İts İnfluence on the Olimpic Experience In Sydney 2000”, XI European Congress of Sport Psychology, Copenhagen.

Hecker JE, Kaczor LM. (1988). “Application of Imaginary Theory to Sport Psychology”, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10(4), 363–373.

Konter E. (1999). Uygulamalı Spor Psikolojisinde Zihinsel Antrenman. 1. Baskı, Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.

Koruç, Z., Bayar, P. (1990). “Kitle Sporu ve Spor Psikolojisi”. Spor Ahlaki ve Spor Felsefesine Yeni Yaklaşımlar Sempozyomu, İstanbul Üniversitesi, 115- 118.

Mamassis G, Doganis G. (2004). “The Effects of Mental Training Program on Juniors Precompetitive Anxiety, Self-Confidence, and Tenis Performance”. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16(2), 118-137.

Murphy, S.M. & Jowdy, D.P. (1992). “Imaginary and Mental Practice”. In T.S. Horn (Ed), Advance in Sport Psychology (Pp,221-250). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Neff R. (2010). Mental Training for Athletes and Other Performers 2006, Www.Mentaltraininginc.Com

Nideffer, R.M., & Sagal, M. (1998). “Concentration and Attention Control”. In J.M. Williams (Ed), Applied Sport Psychology: Personal Growth To Peak Performance (3rd Ed., pp.296-315). Mountainview, CA: Mayfield.

Orlick, T. (1992). “The Psychology of Personal Excellence”. Contemporary Thought On Performance Enhancement,1, 109-122.

Orlick, T.,& Partington, J. (1988). “Mental Links to Excellence”. The Sport Psychologist, 2, 105-130.

Rotella, R.J, & Lerner, J.D. (1993). “Responding To Competitive Pressure”. In R:N: Singer, M. Murphey, & L:K Tennant (Eds), Handbook of Research On Sport (Pp. 528-541). New York: Macmillan.

Selye, H. (1974). Stress Without Distress. New York: New American Library.

Straub, W F. (1989). “The Effect of Three Different Methods of Mental Training on Dart Throwing Performance”. The Sport Psychologist, 3(2), 133–141.

Vealey, R.S. (1986). “Conceptualization of Sport-Confidence and Competitive Orientation: Preliminary Investigation and Instrument Devolopment”. Journal of Sport Psychology, 8, 221-246.

Williams. J.M, & Harris, D.V. (1998). “Relaxation and Energizing Techniques for Regulation of Arousal”. In J.M. Williams (Ed), Applied Sport Psychology: Personal Growth to Peak Performance (3rd Ed., pp.219-236). Mountainview, CA: Mayfield.

Zaichkowsky, L., & Takenaka, K. (1993). “Optimizing Arousal Levels”. In R:N: Singer, M. Murphey, & L:K Tennant (Eds), Handbook of Research On Sport (Pp. 511-527). New York: Macmillan.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Mehmet Şirin Güler, Süleyman Erim Erhan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).