Hoang Van Anh, Thai Cong Dan


With the advancement of technology, social media has been a great learning source in the field of education. This use of social media helps facilitate the exchange of ideas, insights, and knowledge, fostering a dynamic and stimulating academic environment. It is a great means in the process of EFL learners’ language skill development, especially in speaking. Understanding the impact of social media on students' speaking motivation is essential, therefore, to make the speaking learning process more engaging in the lesson. The study focused on four popular platforms (1) YouTube, (2) TikTok, (3) Facebook and (4) Instagram. The author designed a questionnaire of forty-five items to explore students' perceptions of using social media as authentic learning materials to encourage their speaking motivation. At the same time, the author interviewed students to confirm the students' frequency of using these platforms in their learning process. The study sample consists of 90 EFL students who have taken the six courses from Listening - Speaking B1 to English Public Speaking Courses. The findings revealed that students use social media as authentic learning materials to a significant extent and students had positive perceptions toward their speaking motivation encouragement. It was found a medium correlation between the extent of social media as authentic learning materials impact on students' involvement and students’ perceptions of their involvement. The findings may contribute to the discipline of the speaking method since they not only help students understand the significance of using social media in their speaking motivation encouragement but also help teachers understand students’ perceptions, from which teachers can generate more effective and appropriate social media-based activities in classes for enhancing students’ motivation in speaking.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


social media, authentic learning materials, EFL students’ speaking motivation, impacts of social media, perceptions, Can Tho University

Full Text:



Ainin, S., Naqshbandi, M. M., Moghavvemi, S., & Jaafar, N. I. (2015). Facebook usage, socialization and academic performance. Computers & Education, 83, 64-73.

Akar, H. and A. Yildirim, 2000. Use of Authentic Texts to Improve Reading Skills with a Constructivist Approach: A Study on Language Teaching. Edu. Sci., 25 (116): 65-72.

Akbari, O., & Razavi, A. (2016). Using authentic materials in the foreign language classrooms: Teachers’ perspectives in EFL classes. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 5(2), 105-116.

Al-Ali, S. (2014). Embracing the selfie craze: Exploring the possible use of Instagram as a language mLearning tool. Issues and Trends in Educational Technology, 2(2).

Alastuey, M. C. B. (2011). Perceived benefits and drawbacks of synchronous voice-based computer-mediated communication in the foreign language classroom. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24, (5), 419– 432.

Al Azri, R.H., & Al-Rashidi, M. H. (2014). The effect of using authentic materials in teaching. International journal of scientific & technology research. 3(10), 250- 258.

Alhabash, S., & Ma, M. (2017). A Tale of Four Platforms: Motivations and Uses of Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat Among College Students? Social Media and Society, 3(1).

Alhamami, M. (2013). Observation of YouTube language learning video (YouTube LLVS). Teaching English with Technology, 13, (3), 3-17.

Antipova, T. (2020). Integrated Science in Digital Age 2020. Springer Nature.

Arroll, B., & Kendrick, T. (2018). Definition of anxiety. Primary care mental health, 20, 125-37.

Aydin, S. (2012). A review of research on Facebook as an educational environment. Educational Technology Research and Development, 60, 1093-1106.

Bachman, L. F., & Palmer, A. S. (1996). Language testing in practice: Designing and developing useful language tests (Vol. 1). Oxford University Press.

Baker, J., & Westrup, H. (2003). Essential Speaking Skills: A Handbook for English Language Teachers. London: Continuum.

Baran, E. (2013). Connect, participate and learn: Transforming pedagogies in higher education. Bulletin of the IEEE Technical Committee on Learning Technology, 15(1), 9-12.

Barrs, K. (2012). Fostering computer-mediated L2 interaction beyond the classroom. Language Learning & Technology, 16, (1), 10–25.

Blattner, G., & Fiori, M. (2009). Facebook in the language classroom: Promises and possibilities. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 6(1), 17-28.

Beal, D. J. (2015). ESM 2.0: State of the art and future potential of experience sampling methods in organizational research. Annu. Rev. Organ. Psychol. Organ. Behav., 2(1), 383-407.

Brown, D. H. (1994). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall Regent.

Brown, H. D. (1994). Teaching by Principles-An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. Prentice Hall Regents.

Burke, S., Snyder, S., & Rager, RC. (2009) An Assessment of faculty Usage of YouTube as a Teaching Resources. The Internet Journal of Allied Health Science and Practice 7(1)

Burns, A. & Joyce, H. (1997). Focus on speaking. Sydney: National Center for English Language Teaching and Research. Retrieved July from

Bygate, M. (2002). Speaking. In R. Carter & D. Nunan (Eds.), The Cambridge guide to teaching English to speakers of other languages (pp. 14–20). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cakir, I. (2006). The use of video as an audio-visual material in foreign language teaching classroom. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 5, (4): 67-73.

Channey, A. L. (1998). Teaching Oral Communication in Grades K-8. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Chiou, B. (2014). Rethinking the role of first language in the second language Classroom. English Instruction and Instruction, 38(4), 53-78.

Dashti, F., Aysha, A. M., & Adey, A. B. (2021). Why are Arabic adult learners in Kuwait afraidof making mistakes in their English classroom? European Scientific Journal ESJ, 17(12), 15–38.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self Determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum Press.

Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Conceptualizations of intrinsic motivation and self-determination. Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior, 11-40.

Deci, Edward L. (1975). Intrinsic Motivation. New York: Plenum Press.

Deng, L. & Yuen, A. (2010). Towards a framework for educational affordances of blogs. Computers & Education, (1),3.

Doff, A. (1998). Teach English: A Training Course for Teacher. Cambridge University Press

Donmus, V. (2010). The use of social networks in educational computer-game based foreign language learning. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 1497-1503.

Dörnyei, Z. (2001). New themes and approaches in second language motivation research. Annual review of applied linguistics, 21, 43-59.

Downes, S. (2008). Places to go: Connectivism & connective knowledge. Innovate: Journal of Online Education, 5(1), 6.

Efrizal, D. (2012). Improving Students’ Speaking through Communicative Language Teaching Method at Mts Jaalhaq, Sentot Ali Basa Islamic Boarding School of Bengkulu, Indonesia. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(20), 127-134.

Ellison, E. (2017). The #AustralianBeachspace Project: Examining Opportunities for Research Dissemination Using Instagram. M/C Journal, 20(4).

Eren, Ö. (2012). Students’ Attitudes towards Using Social Networking in Foreign Language Classes: A Facebook Example. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 288-294.

Evans, C. 2014. Twitter for teaching: Can social media be used to enhance the process of learning? British Journal of Educational Technology, 45, 902-915.doi:10.1111/bjet.12099

Gaytan, J. 2013. Integrating social media into the learning environment of the classroom: Following social constructivism principles. Journal of Applied Research for Business Instruction, 11(1), 1.

Gebhard, J.G. (1996). Teaching English as a Foreign Language: A Teacher Self-Development and Methodology Guide. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Guariento, W. & Morley, J. (2001). Text and task authenticity in the EFL classroom, ELT Journal 55(4), 347-353.

Hafis, M., & Widya, R. (2021). Psychological factors of EFL students on speaking performance. JIIP-Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Pendidikan, 4(4), 266-271.

Handayani, F. (2016). Instagram as a Teaching Tool? Really? In Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar on English Language and Teaching (ISELT-4) (pp. 320–327).

Hanson, R. E. (2020). Mass Communication: Living in a Media World. SAGE Publications.

Tuan, N. H., & Mai, T. N. (2015). Factors Affecting Students’ Speaking Performance at Le Thanh Hien High School. Asian Journal of Educational Research, 3, 8-23.

Jati, I. P., Saukah, A., & Suryati, N. (2019). Teaching using YouTube tutorial video to improve students’ speaking skills. Jurnal Pendidikan Humaniora, 7(3), 101-116.

Kabilan, M. K., Ahmad, N., & Abidin, M. J. Z. (2010). Facebook: An online environment for learning English in institutions of higher education? The Internet and higher education, 13(4), 179-187.

Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59–68.

Khalid, Al-zyoud (2012). The Use of YouTube in teaching English Literature: The case of Al-Majmaah Community College, Al-Majmaah University (Case Study). International Journal of Linguistics 2012, Vol 4, no 4. doi:10.5296/ijl.v5i4.2930

Kramsch, C. (1993). Context and culture in language teaching. Oxford University Press.

Krashen, S. D. (1988). Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. New York: Prentice-Hall.

Lambert, C., Philp, J., & Nakamura, S. (2017). Learner-generated content and engagement in second language task performance. Language Teaching Research, 21(6), 665-680.

Mandasari, B., & Aminatun, D. (2020a). Improving Students Speaking Performance Through Vlog. English Education: Journal of English Teaching and Research, 5(2), 136–142.

Manggo, I., Liando, N., & Wungow, T. (2022). Students’ Perception Toward Tiktok Media to Improve Their Speaking Ability. JoTELL: Journal of Teaching English, Linguistics, and Literature, 1(10), 1086–1113.

Mansor, N., & Rahim, N. A. (2017). Instagram in ESL Classroom. Man In India, 97(20), 107–114.

Matsuta, K. (June, 2004), Applications for Using Authentic Materials in the Second Language Classroom. Retrieved from Asia University Cele Department Website.

Mazman, S. (2010). Modeling educational usage of Facebook. Computer & Education, 55, 444- 453.

McDonough, J., & Shaw, C. (1993). Materials and Method in ELT; A Teacher’s Guide. UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, p. 134.

Mohammadian, T. (2013). The effect of shyness on Iranian EFL learners’ language learning motivation and willingness to communicate. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(11), 2036–2045.

Muliyah, P., & Aminatun, D. (2020). Teaching English for Specific Purposes in Vocational High School: Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices. Journal of English Teaching, 6(2), 122–133.

Nadkarni, A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2012). Why do people use Facebook? Personality and individual differences, 52(3), 243-249.

Najiha, & Sailun, B. (2021). An analysis of students’ speaking anxiety in English classroom at SMAN 2 Siak Hulu. Lectura: Jurnal Pendidikan, 12(2), 218–229.

Namaziandost, E., Sabzevari, A., & Hashemifardnia, A. (2018). The effect of cultural materials on listening comprehension among Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners: In reference to gender. Cogent Education, 5(1), 1-27.

Nation, I. S. P., & Newton, J. (2009). Teaching ESL/EFL Listening and Speaking. ESL & Applied Linguistics Professional Series. Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

Nunan, D., & Bailey, K. (2009). Exploring second language classroom research: A comprehensive guide. Boston: Heinle.

Nunan, D. (1989). Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom. Cambridge.

Oktaviani, L. (n.d.). Ethnic Snake Game: A Study on the Use of Multimedia in Speaking Class for Electrical Engineering Students. Section Editors.

Oteir, I. N., & Al-Otaibi, A. N. (2019). Foreign Language Anxiety: A Systematic Review. Arab World English Journal, 10(3), 309–317.

Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. New York: Newbury House Publishers.

Purnama, A. D. (2018). Incorporating Memes and Instagram to Enhance Student’s Participation. Language and Language Teaching Journal, 21(1), 94–103

Putri, S. M. D. (2022). The effectiveness of using TikTok to improve EFL learners’ speaking ability. MIMESIS, 3(2), 101–110.

Rachim, D. K. N. (2020). Study of the lazy nature of physics students using the quadratic optimal control method. Jurnal Penelitian & Pengembangan Pendidikan Fisika, 6(2), 279–288.

Rayah, R. A., Jafre, N. A. M., Husain, N. A., & Nawawi, W. R. W. M. (2018). Attitude and motivation in spoken English among semester 4 students in a Malaysian Polytechnic - a correlational study. EDUCATIO: Jurnal Pendidikan Indonesia, 4(2), 100–107.

Rivers, W. M. (2018). Teaching foreign language skills. University of Chicago Press.

Rosenfeld, L. B., Grant, C. H., & McCroskey, J. C. (1995). Communication apprehension and self‐perceived communication competence of academically gifted students. Communication Education, 44(1), 79–89.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American psychologist, 55(1), 68.

Saito, Y. (1994). The MBA and Japanese: Teaching practical language skills in authentic contexts. Theory into Practice, 33(1), 34-40.

Scirri, K. (2021). The Business of Being a Music Influencer. Capstone.

Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.

Sharma, S. K., Joshi, A., & Sharma, H. (2016). A multi-analytical approach to predict the Facebook usage in higher education. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 340-353.

Sherine, A., Seshagiri, A. V. S., & Sastry, M. M. (2020). Impact of whatsapp interaction on improving L2 speaking skills. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 15(3), 250–259.

Shumin, K. (1997). Factors to consider: Developing adult EFL students' speaking abilities. English Teaching Forum. 35 (3), 8.

Silviyanti, T. (2014). Looking into EFL Students’ Perceptions in Listening by Using English Movie Videos on YouTube. Studies in English Language and Education, 1, 1, 42 -58.

Snelson, C, and Perkins, R.A. (2009). From silent on film to YouTube: Tracing the historical roots of motion picture technology in Education. Journal of Visual Literacy, 28, 1-27.

Syah, R. J., Nurjanah, S., & Mayu, V. P. A. Tikio (TikTok App Educational Video) Based on the Character Education of Newton’s Laws Concepts Preferred to Learning for Generation Z. Pancaran Pendidikan, Vol.9 no.4, pp. 132-143, 2020. DOI:10.25037/pancaran.v9i4.325

Sykes, J. M., Ana Oskoz, & Thorne, S. L. (2008). Web 2.0, synthetic immersive environments, and mobile resources for language education. Calico Journal, 25(3), 528-546.

Tang, F., Liang, J., Zhang, H., Kelifa, M. M., He, Q., & Wang, P. (2021). COVID-19 related depression and anxiety among quarantined respondents. Psychology & health, 36(2), 164-178.

Taylor, L. M., Casto, D. J., & Walls, R. T. (2004). Tools, time, and strategies for integrating technology across the curriculum. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 17(2), 121-136.

Tomlinson Brian (1998). Materials Development in Language Teaching, Cambridge University Press.

Tuan, N. H., & Mai, T. N. (2015). Factors Affecting Students’ Speaking Performance at LE Thanh Hien High School. Asian Journal of Educational Research, 3(2), 8-23.

Ur, P. (1996). A Course in Language Teaching. Practice and Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wagner, E. (2007). Are they watching? Test-taker viewing behavior during an L2 video listening test. Language Learning and Technology, 11, (1), 67-86.

Wang, Z., & Kim, H. G. (2017). Can social media marketing improve customer relationship capabilities and firm performance? Dynamic capability perspective. Journal of Interactive marketing, 39(1), 15-26.

Watkins, J, and Wilkins, M. (2011). Using YouTube in the EFL classroom. Language Education in Asia, 2, (1), 113-120.

Xiuwen, Z., & Razali, A. B. (2021). An Overview of the Utilization of TikTok to Improve Oral English Communication Competence among EFL Undergraduate Students. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 9(7), 1439–1451.

Xu, L., Yan, X., & Zhang, Z. (2019). Research on the Causes of the “TikTok” App Becoming Popular and the Existing Problems. 7(2), 59–63.

Yulianti, T., & Sulistiyawati, A. (2020). The Blended Learning for Student’s Character Building. International Conference on Progressive Education (ICOPE 2019), 56–60.

Yulianto, F., Utami, Y. T., & Ahmad, I. (2019). Game Edukasi Pengenalan Buah-buahan Bervitamin C untuk Anak Usia Dini. Jurnal Nasional Pendidikan Teknik Informatika: JANAPATI, 7(3), 242–251.

Yuniara, R., Salasi, Ellianti, Saminan, & Abidin, Z. (2020). The students’ mastery of fraction and its relation to the students’ abilities on its prerequisites. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1460(1).

Zaitun, Hadi, M. S., & Indriani, E. D. (2021). TikTok as a Media to Enhancing the Speaking Skills of EFL Students. Jurnal Studi Guru Dan Pembelajaran, 4(1), 89–94.

Zeng, J & Takatsuka, S. (2009). Text-based peer–peer collaborative dialogue in a computer-mediated learning environment in the ESL context. System 37, 434–446.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2015 - 2023. European Journal of Alternative Education Studies (ISSN 2501-5915) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).