Mustafa Zülküf Altan


Cooperative Learning is an instructional model in which learners work together toward a common goal (Johnson & Johnson, 1986; Slavin, 1993). Research has clearly shown that cooperation results in higher levels of achievement (Johnson, et al., 1993). This article focuses on Cooperative Assessment, two students, one paper, as learning, and proposes viewing assessment as an integral part of the process of learning and teaching by trying to provoke thoughts about positive interdependence, individual accountability and social skill development, three key features of Cooperative Learning. The paper presents pre-service English Language Teachers’ reflections on Cooperative Assessment used as part of the final exam for “Individual Differences in Foreign Language Learning” course in Fall Semester of 2018-2019 academic year.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


cooperative assessment, cooperative learning, student reflection, qualitative, English language teaching

Full Text:



Altan, M. Z. (2009). Profesyonel Öğretmenliğe Doğru [Towards Professional Teaching](1st Ed.). PEGEM.

Altan, M. Z. (2016). Öğretmenliğe Dair- Filmler ve Öğretmenler [About Teaching- Movies andTeachers]. PEGEM.

Altan, M. Z. (2014). Türkiye’nin Eğitim Çıkmazı-Girişimci Öğretim Girişimci Öğretmen [Turkey's Education Dilemma-Entrepreneurial Education Entrepreneurial Teacher] (1st Ed.). PEGEM.

Altan, M. Z. (2019). Eğitim Ateşi [Education Fever] (1st Ed.). Eğitim Yayınevi.

Altan, M. Z. (2020). Yükseköğretimde öğrencinin dersi ve öğretim elemanının öğretim performansını değerlendirmesi: Pedagojik formasyon sertifika eğitimi örneklemi [Student Evaluation of the Course and the Lecturer’s Teaching Performance in Higher Education: A Case of Pedagogic Formation Certificate Program]. Yükseköğretim ve Bilim Dergisi/Journal of Higher Education and Science, 10(3), 559-572.

Angelo, T. A. (1995). Reassessing and defining assessment. American Association for Higher Education Bulletin, 48, 7-9.

Barkley, E., Claire, M., and Patricia, K. C. (2014). Collaborative learning Techniques: A Resource for College Faculty (2nd Ed.). Jossey-Bass.

Baxter, A. (1997). Evaluating your students. Richmond Publishing.

Baeten, M., Kyndt, E., Struyven, K., & Dochy, F. (2010). Using student-centred learning environments to stimulate deep approaches to learning: Factors encouraging or discouraging their effectiveness. Educational Research Review, 5, 243-260.

Biggs, J. & Tang, C. (2011). Teaching for Quality Learning at University: What the Student does. (4th Ed.). Open University Press.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80(2), 139‐148.

Bloom, B. S.; Engelhart, M. D.; Furst, E. J.; Hill, W. H.; Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. David McKay Company.

Boud, D., & Falchikov, N. (Eds.). (2007). Rethinking assessment in higher education: Learning for the longer term. Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Carless, D. (2007) Learning‐oriented assessment: conceptual bases and practical implications. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 44(1), 57-66,

Carless, D. (2015). Excellence in University Assessment: Learning from Award-Winning Practice. Routledge.

Cavanagh, M. (2011). Students' experiences of active engagement through cooperative learning activities in lectures. Active Learning in Higher Education, 12, 23-33.

Cavilla D. (2017). The Effects of Student Reflection on Academic Performance and Motivation. SAGE Open. July. Retrieved from

Chansarkar, B. A. & Raut‐Roy, U. (1987). Student performance under different assessment situations. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 12(2), 115-122,

Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. AAHE Bulletin, 39 (7), 3-7.

Chickering, A., & Gamson, Z. (Eds.). (1991). Applying the seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. (47th Ed.). Jossey-Bass.

Coyle, D. (2007). Content and Language Integrated Learning: Towards a connected research agenda for CLIL pedagogies. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10, 543-562.

Coyle, D., Hood, P., & Marsh, D. (2010). CLIL Content and Language Integrated Learning. Cambridge University Press.

DeLuca, C., & Klinger, D. A. (2010). Assessment literacy development: Identifying gaps in teacher candidates’ learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 17(4), 419–438.

Earl, L. M. & Katz, S. (2006). Rethinking Classroom Assessment with Purpose in Mind : Assessment for Learning, Assessment as Learning, Assessment of Learning. Manitoba. School Programs Division.

Escobar, C., & Sánchez, A. (2009). Language learning through tasks in a CLIL Science classroom. Porta Linguarum, 11, 65-83.

Ewell, P. (2000). Assessment of learning. AAHE Assessment Forum.

Ghaith, G. (2004). Correlates of the implementation of the STAD Cooperative Learning method in the English as a foreign language classroom. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 7(4), 279-294.

Gibbs, G (2010). Using assessment to support student learning. Leeds Met Press. Retrieved from

Gilles, Jean‐Luc, Detroz, P., & Blais, Jean‐Guy. (2011). An international online survey of the practices and perceptions of higher education professors with respect to the assessment of learning in the classroom. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 36:6, 719- 733,

Hammond, J. A., Bithell, C. P., Jones, L., & Bidgood, P. (2010). A first year experience of student-directed peer-assisted learning. Active Learning in Higher Education, 11, 201-212.

Hargreaves, E. (2007). The validity of collaborative assessment for learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 14(2), 185-199.

Hillyard, C., Gillespie, D., & Littig, P. (2010). University students' attitudes about learning in small groups after frequent participation. Active Learning in Higher Education, 11, 9-20.

Johnson, R. T., & Johnson, D. W. (1986). Action research: Cooperative learning in the science classroom. Science and Children, 24, 31-32.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1994). The Nuts and Bolts of Cooperative Learning. Interaction.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1999a). Cooperative Learning and Assessment. Cooperative Learning, JALT Applied Materials.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1999b). Learning together and alone: Cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning (5th Ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

Johnson, D. W. & Johnson, R. T. (2009). An Educational Psychology Success Story: Social Interdependence Theory and Cooperative Learning. Educational Researcher, 38, 365-379.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2014). Cooperative Learning in 21st Century. Annals of Psychology, 30(3), 841–851.

Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Holubec, E. J. (1993). Cooperation in the Classroom (6thEd.). Interaction Book Company.

Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Holubec, E. J. (2008). Cooperation in the classroom (8th Ed.). Interaction Book Company.

Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, K. A. (1998). Cooperative Learning Returns To College: What Evidence Is There That It Works? Change, July/August, 27-35.

Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, K. (2006). Active learning: Cooperation in the college classroom (3rd Ed.). Interaction Book Company.

Keefe, J. W., and Jenkins, J. M. (1997). Instruction and the Learning Environment. Eye on Education.

Lea, S. J., Stephenson, D., & Troy, J. (2003). Higher Education Students' Attitudes to Student centred Learning: Beyond 'educational bulimia'? Studies in Higher Education, 28, 321-334.

Marsh, D., Pavón Vázquez, V., & Frigols Martín, M. J. (2013). The higher education Languages landscape: Ensuring quality in English language degree programmes. Valencian International University.

Mehisto, P. (2012). Criteria for producing CLIL learning material. Encuentro, 21, 15-33.

Meyer, O. (2010). Towards quality CLIL: Successful planning and teaching strategies. Pulso, 33, 11-29.

Miller, C. M. L., & Parlett, M. R. (1974). Up to the Mark: A Study of the Examination Game. Society for Research into Higher Education.

Millis, B. J. & Cottell, P. G. (1998). Cooperative Learning for higher education faculty. Oryx Press.

National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education. (2010). Assessment as a critical element in clinical experiences for teacher preparation. Retrieved from:

Palomba, C. and Banta, T. W. (1999). Assessment Essentials: Planning, Implementing, and Improving Assessment in Higher Education. Jossey-Bass.

Pellegrino, J. W. Chudowsky, N., & Glaser, R. (2001). Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment. National Academy Press.

Pohl, M. (2001). Learning to Think – Thinking to Learn: Models and Strategies to Develop a Classroom Culture of Thinking. Hawker Brownlow Education Pty Ltd.

Popham, W. J. (2013). Classroom Assessment: What Teachers Need to Know? Pearson.

Price, M., O’Donovan, B., & Rust, C. (2007). Putting a social-constructivist assessment model into practice. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 44(4), 143-152.

Prince, M. (2004). Does Active Learning Work? A Review of the Research. Journal of Engineering Education, 93, 223-231.

Rowntree, D. (1987). Assessing Students – how shall we know them? Kogan Page.

Sambell, K., & McDowell, L. (1998). The construction of the hidden curriculum: messages and meanings in the assessment of student learning. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 23, 391-402.

Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. Basic Books.

Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57, 1-22.

Slavin R. E. (1993). Students Differ: So What? Educational Researcher, 22(9), 13-14. http://dx.doi:10.3102/0013189X022009013

Snyder, B. R. (1971). The Hidden Curriculum. Knopf.

Stassen, L. A., Doherty, K., & Poe, M. (2001). Program-Based Review and Assessment Tools and Techniques for Program Improvement: Academic Planning & Assessment. University of Massachusetts Amherst.

Strom, P. S., & Strom, R. D. (2011). Teamwork skills assessment for cooperative learning. Educational Research and Evaluation, 17(4), 233-251.

Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding By Design. (2nd Expanded edition). Assn. for Supervision & Curriculum Development.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2015 - 2023. European Journal of Alternative Education Studies (ISSN 2501-5915) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).